A Theory of Ether, Particles and Atoms
Makarov (Igor S.)
This Page provides (where held) the Abstract of the above Book and those of all the Papers contained in it.


Preface to the First Edition

  1. This work is the result of the research which I started independently late in the 60s in Russia and since August 1992 have proceeded with abroad. The subject of the research was initially chosen to be Systems Theory, because it seemed rather close to the theory of communications, the then field of my occupation, on the one hand, and because it sounded intriguing enough and worth attempting at, on the other. But there was no idea of how and where to start the research, and it was decided to begin with the simplest type of system – a linear system.
  2. The first step proved rather successful: there was found quite an elegant solution of the problem, imagined by myself, of determining the functional complexity of linear systems by their characteristics. That work was published in the 1969, No.2, issue of the Transactions of the Research Institute of Radio (Moscow) where I worked then. Although it was unclear how to proceed with that result, there was a vague indication in it to some connection between the abstract theory of linear systems and statistical physics, which seemed promising.
  3. To make that puzzle out, I set off to supplement my knowledge of theoretical physics, and soon the above indication became more articulate: there is indeed some deep connection between the problem of the synthesis of linear systems and quantum mechanics1. Intrigued by that clue, I attempted for several years to apply the solutions of Schroedinger’s-like equations, with the potential determined by characteristics of the system, to its synthesis. However, the results were unsatisfactory: something essential was missing in comprehending both the objects of theoretical physic and linear systems.
  4. The solution came suddenly from where nobody could have expected it - from philosophy. Looking once through Hegel’s works, I was struck by a strangely close analogy between the conceptions of duality in dialectical logic and particle physics. That revelation triggered another stage of self-education, this time in dialectical philosophy. As a result, there arose conviction that Hegel's dialectical logic is actually the general theory of systems sought for, but the philosopher’s peculiar way of thinking and the extremely abstract language of that his work made its interpretation in scientific terms almost impossible, with the exception of some most simple cases. So I had no choice but to endeavor my own interpretation of the dialectical logic, on the one hand, and, simultaneously, a revision of some theories and principles of theoretical physics in accordance with that logic, on the other hand, which eventually resulted in the theory expounded in this book. The first rough results, such as the existence of ether, its composition and the phenomenon of spontaneous generation of neutrons in it, were achieved early in the 80s, but it took me about fifteen years more to complete this research in a sufficiently adequate and convincing form.
  5. Chapter 1 was written first in 1989 in Russia, but later was subjected to several corrections. Chapter 2 was written in April-May 1995 in Israel, where I immigrated in July 1992, and later was subjected to numerous corrections. In 1999, living in Canada, I wrote Chapter 3 and Introduction. I also started there calculations aimed at evaluating the characteristics of ether; that part of the research, stated in Chapter 4, was continued in Bulgaria, where I arrived in June 2000, and was completed mainly in September 2001, except for some little corrections made in Israel where I returned in July 2002.
  6. Looking for a way to publish the research, July 2006, I arrived in Britain and, after several unsuccessful attempts to find a book publisher for this unusual and perhaps challenging work, decided to try the desktop publishing procedure, to begin with, given appropriate conditions for that. So, in March 2007, the first version of the book, titled “A Theory of Ether Generating Matter”, emerged in a very little edition. I sent the book to the British Library, the Library of Congress and UNESCO for registration. Waiting for a response from my above correspondents, I decided meanwhile to try and proceed further with the research using the drafts of two new articles on atomic physics made in Israel. Soon Chapters 5 and 6 appeared, thereby completing in rough the revision of the most critical and problematic domain of modern physics and thus enabling me to issue an enlarged version of the book with its present new title and a little correction of the previous chapters.
    … July 2007, Rochdale, UK

Preface to the Second Edition
  1. Having donated the first privately printed edition of the book to academies of some European countries and registered it at the British Library and the Copyright Office of the Library of Congress, I decided to edit it anew and publish professionally the second edition of the book. The more so that, as an analysis shows, the timely and proper development of this research, which seems to blaze a trail to the reform of modern science in general, may prove vital for the destiny of civilization. So, to begin with, in March 2009 I printed professionally a hundred copies of the book and that November, visiting Amsterdam, mailed most of them to universities, libraries and scientific centers the world over. Now I intend to publish the book on a large scale.
  2. Although this book is designed primarily for physicists, students and scientists of all other fields may find it useful, as well, because of the inherently holistic and systematic nature of science.
  3. Finally, having providentially completed this research, unimaginable at its early stages, I thank all those who, at different times and circumstances, made critical remarks which, in one way or other, directly or indirectly, promoted its completion and improved its quality.
    … November 2010, Haifa, Israel

    Preface to the First Edition vii
    Preface to the Second Edition ix
    Introduction 1
  1. Introduction to a Non-formal Theory of Vacuum – 9
    1.1 The Virtual Positronium 10
    1.2 The Complex Positronium 11
    1.3 Vacuum 12
    1.4 The Coherent Multitude of Composiums 14
    1.5 The Bound Multitude of Composiums 15
    1.6 The Correlation Domain 16
    Conclusion 18
    References 19
  2. Spontaneous Generation of Neutrons in Vacuum – 21
    2.1 The Self-consistent Cloud 22
    2.2 The Balanced Cloud 24
    2.3 The Self-controlled Cloud 26
    2.4 The Self-conjugate Cloud 28
    2.5 The Consistent Cloud 31
    2.6 Discussion of the Results 33
    Conclusion 35
    References 35
  3. The Neutron Becoming the Atom – 37
    3.1 The Consistent Cloud 38
    3.2 The Organized Cloud 39
    3.3 The Subsystems 42
    Conclusion 43
    References 43
  4. Evaluation of the Parameters and Characteristics of Ether – 45
    4.1 The Normalized Energy Spectrum of Ether 46
    … 4.1.1 Experimental Data on Cosmic Rays 46
    … 4.1.2 The Spectrum of Cosmic Rays Photons 48
    4.2 The Correlation Function of Ether 50
    … 4.2.1 Formulas for Computation 50
    … 4.2.2 Computation 51
    … 4.2.3 Analysis of the Results 58
    4.3 Dimensions of the Electron and the Muon 60
    Conclusion 62
    References 62
  5. Introduction to the Evolutionary Theory of the Atom – 63
    5.1 The H-atom 65
    … 5.1.1 Interaction with vacuum 65
    … 5.1.2 The rough model 66
    … 5.1.3 The exact model 68
    … 5.1.4 Magnetic deficiency 69
    5.2 The Neutron 70
    … 5.2.1 Interaction with vacuum 70
    … 5.2.2 The rough model 70
    … 5.2.3 The exact model 72
    … 5.2.4 Electric deficiency 73
    5.3 The D-atom 74
    … 5.3.1 Nuclear interaction 74
    … 5.3.2 The rough model 74
    … 5.3.3 Characteristics 75
    … 5.3.4 The exact model 77
    … 5.3.5 Interaction with vacuum 78
    5.4 The He-atom 78
    … 5.4.1 From the D-atom to the He-atom 78
    … 5.4.2 The rough model 79
    … 5.4.3 The pulse response 81
    … 5.4.4 The spectral transparency 82
    … 5.4.5 The exact model 82
    5.5 Evaluation of the Electric Parameters 83
    5.6 Discussion of the Results 86
    … 5.6.1 Ether and the Atoms 86
    … 5.6.2 The H-atom 87
    … 5.6.3 The D-atom 88
    … 5.6.4 The He-atom 88
    … 5.6.5 A More General View of Nuclear Interaction 89
    Conclusion 89
    References 89
  6. Evolution of the Nuclear Structure – 91
    6.1 The Center 92
    6.2 The Tetrahedral Shell 92
    6.3 The Octahedral Shell 94
    6.4 The Icosahedral Shell 95
    6.5 The Double-icosahedral Shell 96
    6.6 The Inverse Shells 97
    6.7 Inter-shell Interaction 95
    6.8 Ether, the Star and the Atom 98
    … 6.8.1 The star 98
    … 6.8.2 The D-atom 99
    … 6.8.3 The m-atom 99
    … 6.8.4 The U-atom 101
    6.9 Discussion of the Results 102
    Conclusion 103
    References 103
  7. Appendices – 105
    Appendix A. Abstract of the Research 105
    Appendix B. A Brief Review of the Theory 108
    Appendix C. The Program of Computation of the Correlation Function of Ether 113
    Index 117

  • Philos_List, 10/02/2011;
  • See Link ("The Reform Science Center");
  • See Link (Defunct) (the book).

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