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Personal Identity

Teletransportation

(Work In Progress: output at 03/06/2020 10:51:41)

(For earlier versions of this Note, see the table at the end)


Discussion

  1. Original Case Study - “Beam me up Scottie”
    • There are two obvious supposed mechanisms for teletransportation:
      1. Transferring both matter and information; or simply
      2. Transferring information, utilising local matter.
    • I gather that in the Star Trek series itself, it's plasma that's transmitted, but as this is unlikely to get to its destination without causing havoc, the information-only transfer is more reasonable. However, even in the plasma-transfer case, I'm unconvinced that I'd survive1, for two reasons:
      1. Some things (eg. bicycles, and analogous artifacts2) can survive disassembly and re-assembly, but only if they are disassembled into recognisable parts. If a bicycle is disassembled into iron filings and latex goo, and then re-manufactured, we might be reluctant to say it's the same bicycle.
      2. As a matter of empirical fact, fundamental particles are not distinguishable, so the labelling cannot be undertaken even in principle. If it doesn't matter which particle fits where, provided they are of the right sort, the case seems to collapse into3 the information-transfer variant.
    • We now turn to the information-transfer case. My main worries initially here have to do with the possibility of duplicates4. We all know that a counterfeit, however well done, isn't the same as the original. The logic of identity5 is constraining. A thing is identical to itself and to nothing else, so if a thing is identical to two "other" things, these "two" must be identical to one another. Given that my two beamed-up versions aren't identical to one another, at least one of them can't be identical to me. And, since they are exactly similar6, why choose one rather than the other? So, neither is me. Both are exactly similar7 to me, but identity is to be distinguished from exact similarity. This situation is comparable to the case where the "original" human being isn't destroyed. This sort of thought experiment8 is referred to as the branch-line case9. Canonically, it's where I've only a few days left to live (because the scanner has done me a mischief). Would I be happy in the knowledge that my duplicate would go on and on, and take up with my partner and career where I left off? Is this as good as if I survived? Not likely, unless we’re Parfitian10 saints! Note, however, that the case is tendentiously described (ie. as teletransportation) to lead to this seemingly obvious conclusion that this is a form of transport11. The "main line" candidate would be perfectly happy that his rival back home was about to perish.
    • Philosophers split into two main camps in response to these situations (though - jumping ahead a little - even if perdurantism12 is true, we still might not have the teletransportation of a persisting13 individual14, because of the wrong sort of causal15 link leading to a lack of forward continuity16 of consciousness17, or even of physical continuity). So there are multiple bifurcations, but we keep things simple here and just follow those who think that I either survive18 or have what matters19 in survival:-
      1. 4-dimensionalists (Perdurantists20): A thing is really a 4-dimensional worm through space-time, which consists in a set of instantaneous 3-D stages. In this situation, where multiple teletransportations occur, all copies are me. They are different 4-D worms, but they share all their pre-beaming-up stages. There were always at least 2 people present.
      2. 3-dimensionalists (Endurantists21) claim that while I'm not identical to the beamed-up person, yet I have what matters22 in survival23.
    • Note that there's a modal24 argument to the effect that even in the usual case where only one copy is beamed up, and the original is destroyed, because there might have been multiple copies, this means that identity isn't preserved even in the case where there's only one teletransportation-result created. This seems to lead to paradox. Imagine the situation - I'm beamed up and think I've survived25, and am then told that the machine has malfunctioned and produced a duplicate, and hence, contrary to my experience, I haven't survived after all! Unfortunately, some philosophers go along with a "closest continuer26" theory of identity across nasty cases of fission27 or fusion28. I'm identical to (or even “survive as29”) the continuer that most closely continues me, either psychologically30 or physically31, according to taste. How can my survival depend on what happens to someone else, the thought goes32? While this does seem odd, in fact you can’t trust the feelings of the teletransportees – for even if multiple copies are made, they all subjectively feel like the original.
    • There are two questions outstanding.
      1. Do I survive the transfer? And, if I don’t,
      2. Does it matter that I'm not identical to the post-beamed person?
      I’m here ignoring the (as it seems to me) illogical “survival33 without identity” option.
    • We have seen that it is possible that it appears to me that I survive, yet I do not. On the endurantist34 view, the logic of identity means that I cannot trust my experience. So, it seems possible that the person “waking up” is not me. I never wake up – in the sense that I lose consciousness, but never experience a re-awakening - but someone else with my past in his memories is created in my stead.
    • So35, is survival36 itself what matters37? Well, on the perdurantist38 view, survival is not even sufficient for me to have what matters in the sense Parfit39 intends. Imagine the case where the machine goes haywire and 1,000 exactly similar teletransportees are created. All these share my pre-teletransportation stages, so are all me (except that “I” was always 1,000 co-located individuals – and maybe more – who knows how often the machine may go wrong in the future!). In this case 1,000 individuals would be squabbling over the same friends, relations, job etc, and that might be rather a nuisance, and it seems that I wouldn’t really have what most matters to me, though no doubt I would be able to rebuild my life from scratch. However, this isn't fundamental to whether I do or don't survive, and it seem that what really matters to me is survival itself. If I'm a violin virtuoso or a body-builder, I might not find it much fun surviving as a brain in a vat40, but that would just be tough. The standard philosophical test is the "future great pain test41". I believe that the future continuant will be me, whether I like it or not, if I'm as terrified of that continuant being tortured as I would be if I were to be tortured in the normal course of events. Our BIVs42 would be even more upset at the prospect of torture-simulation being fed into their brains than at the loss of their beautiful bodies. Our fears have to be moderated by logic, however. But this is no worse than ignoring a revivalist rant on Hellfire. If I’m not identical to a particular teletransportatee, I won’t survive43, and if I don’t survive44 I won’t feel anything. I may have a moral obligation not to land others in a pickle, but it won’t be the selfish problem of avoiding landing myself in one.
    • I can imagine fissioning45, by the bungled-beaming-up process, into 1,000 continuants, none of which (on a 3-D view) is identical to me, but all of whom seem to themselves to continue my first-person perspective46. I can imagine (just about) going into the machine, and coming out again 1,000 times (when the life-histories of the 1,000 then start to diverge). While the psychologies of the 1,000 are initially identical, they are not connected to one another, though they are each connected continuously to the pre-beamed-up person. So, if even one of them were to be threatened with torture, I'd be terrified if I thought that that one (even amongst all the others) would be me, in the sense that my experience continues into that body.
    • But, do I survive47? I don't think I do, for reasons given above. It’s not that I reject perdurantism48, it’s just that even accepting perdurantism there’s too radical a discontinuity. It's clear that a duplicate, looking backwards, wouldn't be able to tell apart the situation from the normal one of (say) just having woken up after a dreamless sleep. However, I imagine it's possible (even in a supposedly successful teletransportation) for – moving forward49 – there to be nothing it's like for me after the beaming - it's as though I never woke up, though someone else woke up thinking he was me. This would be a tragedy but, we'd never know about it, because (on this hypothesis) I wouldn't be around to tell the tale, and my duplicate would claim everything was fine (he remembered going to bed and waking up, as it were).
    • This worries me slightly about our every-night bouts of unconsciousness. How do I know that “the me” that wakes up is “the same me” that went to sleep, and would it matter if it wasn't? Was my mother right in saying “it’ll be all right in the morning”, in the sense that I’d have no further experience of the current problem, or indeed of anything at all? Is this worry parallel to beam-me-up case? Or is sleep a pain-free death?
    • I suspect the answer to these questions is that for a physical thing to persist, there needs to be appropriate physical continuity, and this continuity guarantees its persistence (though this intuition is a bit of a feeble response). On the assumption that my brain50 supports my conscious experience, this is enough to reassure me that, as it's the same continuing brain in my skull overnight, it's the same me that's conscious in the morning. I don't have the same reassurance in the case of beaming-up. So, I wouldn't go in for it, even if it came to be seen as a cheap form of transportation.
  2. John Weldon's "To Be"51
    • This is a 10-minute animated cartoon that discusses the question of teletransportation. In it, a mad scientist invents a teletransportation device as a means of free travel. The necessity of destroying the original is discussed, initially to avoid overpopulation, and then to prevent disputes as to who is who. The branch-line case, where the original is destroyed five minutes after the replication, also features. There, it is clear that the original is a different individual to the teletransportee, and clings to life. Destroying the original is (in retrospect) murder – but what’s the difference between this situation and the one where the original is immediately destroyed? There’s obviously the anticipatory angle – in the “normal” case, the original thinks of the situation as one of travel, and no-one thinks that identity is not preserved in the process, whereas in the branch-line case the confusion is exposed, and the original knows that the teletransportee is a clone. So, maybe the branch-line case is clearly a case of murder, whereas the “normal” case is a case of accidental homicide where the perpetrator is unaware that he’s killed someone?
    • The twist in the tail is that the heroine, overcome with guilt after the branch-line case (which she’d originally just thought of as a logical demonstration) – and now understanding the metaphysics of teletransportation – thinks she can now
      1. atone for her crime,
      2. escape the guilt and
      3. escape her creditors by being herself teletransported.
      For (a) she dies and is cloned and (b) / (c) the teletransportee is a different individual to the original, so why should this individual have any moral connection to the other? There seems to be something fishy about this, but maybe it’s perfectly sound reasoning. However, …
    • In the animation, the original and the teletransportee get muddled up (after all, both look alike and think alike), so for practical purposes we are in a situation similar to Locke’s “amnesiac drunkard” case – society has to find the drunkard guilty for his forgotten crimes (in that case because of the possibility of dissimulation); so, maybe the possibility of dissimulation or devious intent (as in the animated case) would for practical purposes mean that the teletransportee would inherit the moral and legal baggage of the original – and surely they would, or the practical consequences of people routinely escaping their debts would be grave.
    • Yet, metaphysically, it’s no different from escaping your debts by committing suicide, because the teletransportee is not the same individual. And, I think the Branch-line case shows that it’s not the same person either, unless we allow the non-substance term “Person” to have multiple instances – as immediately post teletransportation, both the original and the teletransportee would seem to be the same person (however this is defined non-substantially) even though they would rapidly diverge into two different persons. Just as in the case of suicide, society has in the past tried to show that you “can’t really escape” – because of the prospect of Hell, so in the teletransportation case the same myth would be propagated. The teletransportee would be deemed to inherit the moral baggage of the original and, if not up to speed on the metaphysics, would think rightly so. But the original would have escaped for all that!

References



In-Page Footnotes:

Footnote 3: Footnote 9: Footnote 11: Footnote 32: Footnote 35: Footnote 51: Footnote 55:


Printable Versions:



Table of the Previous 6 Versions of this Note:

Date Length Title
18/12/2010 19:58:05 13005 Teletransportation
12/12/2009 17:21:07 13021 Teletransportation
12/12/2009 17:12:29 12854 Teletransportation
12/12/2009 11:42:43 12819 Teletransportation
26/11/2007 23:25:26 9522 Teletransportation
12/08/2007 10:17:46 9520 Teletransportation



Note last updated Reading List for this Topic Parent Topic
03/06/2020 10:51:49 Teletransportation Thought Experiments

Summary of Note Links from this Page

Artifacts Brain Brains in Vats Causality Closest Continuer
Consciousness Duplication Endurantism First-Person Perspective Fission
Fusion Future Great Pain Test Individual Logic of Identity Modality
Note Links Explanation Only 'X' and 'Y' Principle Organisms Parfit Perdurantism
Persistence Criteria Physical Continuity Psychological Continuity Psychological Continuity - Forward Similarity
Survival Thought Experiments What Matters Works Read - Explanation  

To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.




Summary of Note Links to this Page

Aeon Papers Aeon Papers - Summary Document: 2017-2018 Causality Clones, 2 Dualism
Garrett - Personal Identity and Reductionism Information Johnston - Human Beings Modality Olson - Immanent Causation and Life After Death, 2
Parfit, 2 Psychological Continuity - Forward Quantum Mechanics Reduplication Objections Replication
Research - Proposal Resurrection (Metaphysics). T1 Sleep Thesis - Chapter 10 (Thought Experiments) Thesis - Current Stance
Transhumanism Uploading      

To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.




Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note

Author Title Medium Extra Links Read?
Agar (Nicholas) Functionalism and Personal Identity Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2, 3  
Ayer (A.J.) Postscript to a Postmortem Paper High Quality Abstract    
Baillie (James) What Am I? Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes
Baker (Deane-Peter) Taylor and Parfit on Personal Identity: a Response to Lotter Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Bourgeois (Warren) Contemporary Philosophers' Views on Persons: Parfit: The Oxford Buddhist Paper Low Quality Abstract    
Bourget (David) & Chalmers (David) The PhilPapers Surveys: What Do Philosophers Believe? Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes
Brennan (Andrew) Survival Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Briggs (Rachael) & Nolan (Daniel) Utility Monsters for the Fission Age Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Campbell (Scott) Persons and Substances Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Campbell (Scott) The Conception of a Person as a Series of Mental Events Paper Low Quality Abstract    
Chopra (Deepak) & Hameroff (Stuart) Can science explain the soul? Paper High Quality Abstract    
Clark (Andy) & Kuhn (Robert Lawrence) Aeon: Video - Andy Clark - Virtual immortality Paper High Quality Abstract 2, 3, 4 Yes
Dainton (Barry) Modes of Incapacitation Paper Low Quality Abstract    
Dainton (Barry) Self: Philosophy In Transit: Prologue Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes
Dennett (Daniel) The Mind's I - Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul: Introduction Paper High Quality Abstract 2, 3, 4  
Fuller (Gary) Functionalism and Personal Identity Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2  
Gale (Richard) On Some Pernicious Thought-Experiments Paper High Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Garrett (Brian) Personal Identity and Reductionism Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Garrett (Brian) The Problem (of Personal Identity) and Its Place in Philosophy Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Gasser (Georg) Personal Identity and Resurrection: Introduction Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes
Gribbin (John) Schrodinger's Kittens and the Search for Reality Book Medium Quality Abstract    
Hanson (Robin) The Age of Em: Work, Love, and Life when Robots Rule the Earth Book Medium Quality Abstract    
Johnston (Mark) A New Refutation Of Death Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Johnston (Mark) Human Beings Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes
Johnston (Mark) Remnant Persons: Animalism's Undoing Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Kihlstrom (John F.), Beer (Jennifer S.) & Klein (Stanley B.) Self and Identity as Memory Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Lockwood (Michael) When Does a Life Begin? Paper High Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Olson (Eric) Immanent Causation and Life After Death Paper High Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Olson (Eric) Life After Death and the Devastation of the Grave Paper High Quality Abstract 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Yes
Olson (Eric) Psychology and Personal Identity Paper High Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Olson (Eric) Relativism and Persistence Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Olson (Eric) Review of Tye's 'Consciousness and Persons - Unity and Identity' Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Olson (Eric) The Human Animal: Introduction Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes
Olson (Eric) What Are We? Bundles Paper High Quality Abstract    
Ord (Toby) Implications of fission, fusion and teletransportation to a view of personal identity through psychological continuity Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2  
Papineau (David) Introducing Consciousness Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Parfit (Derek) A Response (to Gillett - Reasoning About Persons) Paper Low Quality Abstract    
Parfit (Derek) Nagel's Brain Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes
Parfit (Derek) The Unimportance of Identity Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2  
Parfit (Derek) We Are Not Human Beings Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2  
Parfit (Derek) What We Believe Ourselves To Be Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Parfit (Derek) Why Our Identity is Not What Matters (Excerpts) Paper Low Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Peacocke (Arthur) & Gillett (Grant) Persons and Personality: Introduction Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes
Reid (Mark D.) A Case in Which Two Persons Exist in One Animal Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Schechtman (Marya) Empathic Access: The Missing Ingredient in Personal Identity Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Seibt (Johanna) Fission, Sameness, and Survival: Parfit’s Branch Line Argument Revisited Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Shoemaker (David) Personal Identity and Immortality Paper High Quality Abstract 2, 3, 4 Yes
Shoemaker (Sydney) Functionalism and Personal Identity - a Reply Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2  
Shoemaker (Sydney) Persons and Personal Identity Paper High Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Shoemaker (Sydney) Self and Substance Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Smith (Barry C.), Broks (Paul), Kennedy (A.L.) & Evans (Jules) What Does It Mean to Be Me? Paper High Quality Abstract 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Yes
Snowdon (Paul) [P & not-A] Cases: An Introduction Paper Medium Quality Abstract    
Srinivasan (Amia) Remembering Derek Parfit Paper High Quality Abstract 2, 3, 4 Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Causality Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 10 (Thought Experiments) Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Clones Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Current Position Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Dualism Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Information Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Modality Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Parfit Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Psychological Continuity - Forward Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Quantum Mechanics Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Reduplication Objections Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Replication Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Sleep Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Teletransportation Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Transhumanism Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Uploading Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Vedral (Vlatko) Decoding Reality: The Universe as Quantum Information Book Medium Quality Abstract    
Williams (Bernard) Personal Identity Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes
Wilson (Jack) Beyond Horses and Oak Trees: A New Theory of Individuation for Living Entities Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes
Zimmerman (Dean) Bodily Resurrection: The Falling Elevator Model Revisited Paper High Quality Abstract   Yes



References & Reading List

Author Title Medium Source Read?
Agar (Nicholas) Functionalism and Personal Identity Paper - Referencing Medium Quality Abstract Nous, Mar2003, Vol. 37 Issue 1, p52-70, 19p; 8%
Bourget (David) & Chalmers (David) The PhilPapers Surveys: What Do Philosophers Believe? Paper - Referencing High Quality Abstract Philosophical Studies: Vol. 170, No. 3 (September 2014), pp. 465-500 Yes
Brennan (Andrew) Personal Identity and Personal Survival Paper - By Subtopic Low Quality Abstract Analysis, vol. 42, 1982, pp. 44-50 No
Brennan (Andrew) Survival Paper - By Subtopic Medium Quality Abstract Synthese June 1984; 59: 339-362 7%
Clark (Andy) & Kuhn (Robert Lawrence) Aeon: Video - Andy Clark - Virtual immortality Paper - By Subtopic High Quality Abstract Aeon, 19 August, 2019 Yes
Elliot (Robert) How to Travel Faster than Light Paper - By Subtopic Medium Quality Abstract Analysis 41.1,January 1981, pp. 4-6 No
Fuller (Gary) Functionalism and Personal Identity Paper - By Subtopic Medium Quality Abstract Personalist Forum 8, #1 Supplement, 1992, 133-143 33%
Gale (Richard) On Some Pernicious Thought-Experiments Paper - Referencing High Quality Abstract Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy, Ed. Tamara Horowitz & Gerald J. Massey, 1991 Yes
Gasser (Georg), Ed. Personal Identity and Resurrection: How Do We Survive Our Death? Book - Referencing (via Paper Referencing) Medium Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 95%
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: 2019+ Paper - Referencing Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) - Aeon Yes
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: A-B (& General) Book - Referencing (via Paper Referencing) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 100%
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: C-F Book - By Subtopic (via Paper By Subtopic) Low Quality Abstract Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) - Aeon: C-F 41%
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: G-K Book - By Subtopic (via Paper By Subtopic) Low Quality Abstract Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) - Aeon: G-K 34%
Horowitz (Tamara) & Massey (Gerald J.) Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy Book - Referencing (via Paper Referencing) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 4%
Huenemann (Charlie) If I teleport from Mars, does the original me get destroyed? Paper - By Subtopic Low Quality Abstract Aeon, 01 August, 2017 Yes
Martin (L. Michael) & Augustine (Keith) The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death Book - Referencing (via Paper Referencing) Medium Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 15%
Olson (Eric) Immanent Causation and Life After Death Paper - Referencing High Quality Abstract Gasser (Georg) - Personal Identity and Resurrection: How Do We Survive Our Death? 2010 Yes
Olson (Eric) Life After Death and the Devastation of the Grave Paper - Referencing High Quality Abstract Martin & Augustine - The Myth of an Afterlife, Part 2, Chapter 19, 2015: 409-423 Yes
Ord (Toby) Implications of fission, fusion and teletransportation to a view of personal identity through psychological continuity Paper - By Subtopic Medium Quality Abstract Website 40%
Seibt (Johanna) Fission, Sameness, and Survival: Parfit’s Branch Line Argument Revisited Paper - By Subtopic Medium Quality Abstract Metaphysica 1.2 (2000), pp. 95-134 No
Shoemaker (David) Personal Identity and Ethics: A Brief Introduction Book - Referencing (via Paper Referencing) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied Yes
Shoemaker (David) Personal Identity and Immortality Paper - Referencing High Quality Abstract Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Ethics: A Brief Introduction, 2009, Chapter 1 Yes
Smith (Barry C.), Broks (Paul), Kennedy (A.L.) & Evans (Jules) What Does It Mean to Be Me? Paper - Referencing High Quality Abstract BBC Website Yes
Srinivasan (Amia) Remembering Derek Parfit Paper - Referencing High Quality Abstract London Review of Books, Blog, 6th January 2017 Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Parfit Paper - Referencing Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Teletransportation Paper - By Subtopic Medium Quality Abstract   Yes



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