<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /> <title>Note: Personal Identity - Clones (Theo Todman's Web Page)</title> </head><body> <a name="Top"></a> <h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Notes Pages</h1><hr><h2>Personal Identity</h2><h3>Clones</h3><p class = "Centered">(Text as at 24/04/2018 00:12:58)<br><br>(For earlier versions of this Note, <a href="#TableOfPreviousVersions">see the table at the end</a>)</p><hr> <P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_58_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_58_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li> Cloning is related to  or is involved in the analysis of  <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_58_2">topics such as</A></U><SUB>2</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_58_2"></A> <BR>&rarr; <a name="1"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_35.htm">Duplication</A><SUP>3</SUP>,<BR>&rarr; <a name="2"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_33.htm">Fission</A><SUP>4</SUP>,<BR>&rarr; <a name="3"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_36.htm">Replication</A><SUP>5</SUP>,<BR>&rarr; <a name="4"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_97.htm">Resurrection</A><SUP>6</SUP> / <a name="5"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_95.htm">Reincarnation</A><SUP>7</SUP>,<BR>&rarr; <a name="6"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_46.htm">Teletransportation</A><SUP>8</SUP> <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_58_9">(Note</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_58_9"></A>).</li><li>Cloning <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_58_10">also features in</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_58_10"></A> several <a name="7"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_32.htm">TEs</A><SUP>11</SUP>.</li><li>We need to contrast:- <ol type="1"><li>The metaphysical possibility of atom-by-atom cloning, with & </li><li>Biological cloning which uses existing structures, and interferes unnaturally in a fairly minor way. </li></ol></li><li>I am not concerned (as far as my thesis goes) with the medical ethics of biological cloning. There is never any suggestion that clones in this sense are logically identical, any more than so-called identical twins are. <ul type="square"><li>That said, there is something of a link  in the metaphysics, if not the ethics  with a critique of <a name="8"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_89.htm">Parfit</A><SUP>12</SUP> s  identity doesn t matter account of personal identity. </li><li>Since my clone has my (innate) properties and capacities, Parfit might think I have all that matters (or much of what matters) to me if my clone, rather than I myself, survives and I do not.</li><li>The papers by Agar and Brennan seem to follow this approach. </li><li>In particular, the paper by Brennan suggests that persons might be types rather than tokens which  while an interesting proposal  is about as far from the truth as you can get. Tokens suffer, types do not, <em>qua</em> types. On token of the same type may be luxuriating white another is being tortured. </li></ul></li><li>What I am interested in is whether atom-by-atom cloning (where the original exemplar is destroyed) can ever preserve identity. Because of the logical possibility of the non-destruction of the  original , I take it that it cannot. This argument depends on modal logic  and the rejection of the possibility of <a name="9"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_63.htm">contingent identity</A><SUP>13</SUP>. For further discussion, see under <a name="10"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_46.htm">Teletransportation</A><SUP>14</SUP>. </li><li>We may also need to discuss <a name="11"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_39.htm">causality</A><SUP>15</SUP> to further explain why identity is not preserved. This is particularly the case when discussing <a name="24"></a><A HREF = "../../Authors/Z/Author_Zimmerman (Dean).htm">Dean Zimmerman</A> s <em>Falling Elevator</em> model of <a name="12"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_97.htm">resurrection</A><SUP>16</SUP>, where  it is supposed  there is a causal connection between the expiring body and its <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_58_17">clone</A></U><SUB>17</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_58_17"></A> in the next world. </li><li>The very term CLONING seems to deny the possibility of the logical identity of an original and its clone. It implies that there are two things  the original and the clone  and two things can never be one thing, so cannot be logically identical. </li><li>For a page of Links to this Note, <a href="Notes_58_Links.htm">Click here</a>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_58_18">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>18</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_58_18"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_58_19">include</A></U><SUB>19</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_58_19"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="14"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9528.htm">Dworkin (Andrea) - Sasha</A>", Dworkin</li><li><a name="15"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5929.htm">Gale (Richard) - On Some Pernicious Thought-Experiments</A>", 1991, Gale</li><li><a name="22"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1611.htm">Ishiguro (Kazuo) - Never Let Me Go</A>", 2005, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_58_20">Ishiguro</A></U><SUB>20</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_58_20"></A> </li><li><a name="16"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15141.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Immortality</A>", 2009, Shoemaker </li><li><a name="17"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9529.htm">Tuttle (Lisa) - World of Strangers</A>", Tuttle</li></ol></li><li>The categorised reading-list below includes a lot of irrelevant items to do with the ethics of biological cloning. A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="18"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4975.htm">Agar (Nicholas) - Cloning and Identity</A>", 2003, Agar</li><li><a name="19"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11406.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Survival</A>", 1984, Brennan</li><li><a name="20"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18345.htm">Johnston (Mark) - A New Refutation Of Death</A>", 2010, Johnston</li><li><a name="21"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6660.htm">Kamm (F.M.) - Moral Status and Personal Identity: Clones, Embryos, and Future Generations</A>", 2005, Kamm</li><li><a name="23"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1479.htm">Nussbaum (Martha) & Sunstein (Cass), Eds. - Clones and Clones: Facts and Fantasies About Human Cloning</A>", 1998, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_58_21">Nussbaum</A></U><SUB>21</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_58_21"></A></li></ol></li><li>This Note is mostly a <a name="13"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_7/Notes_737.htm">place-holder</A><SUP>22</SUP>. </li></ul></P> <FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><HR><h3 class = "Left">In-Page Footnotes:</h3><a name="On-Page_Link_58_1"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_58_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_58_2"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_58_2"><B>Footnote 2</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I ve included the papers primarily treating of these topics under the reading list for this topic where they mention cloning, though they will feature elsewhere. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_58_9"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_58_9"><B>Footnote 9</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is sometimes rather tendentiously referred to as  Telecloning .</li><li>Yet, calling it  Teletransportation is equally tendentious, and</li><li> Telecloning has at least the virtue of beig the correct description!</li><li>See <a name="25"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11406.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Survival</A>". </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_58_10"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_58_10"><B>Footnote 10</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>No doubt it does, but I need to specify which!</li><li>See <a name="26"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5929.htm">Gale (Richard) - On Some Pernicious Thought-Experiments</A>", which is also vague! </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_58_17"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_58_17"><B>Footnote 17</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Is it agreed that this is indeed a clone, as it seems to be, or & </li><li>Is this body supposed to be the same body, created by supernatural processes by immanent causation  albeit across space and maybe other dimensions  much as a body at one time is self-identical to a body at a later time by natural metabolic processes. </li><li>This would imply  in the absence of <a name="28"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_42.htm">perdurantism</a>  the non-identity of the living organism and the post-mortem <a name="29"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_65.htm">corpse</a>. </li><li>See <a name="27"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5844.htm">Hershenov (David) - Van Inwagen, Zimmerman, and the Materialist Conception of Resurrection</A>" for the argument that Zimmerman s resurrected body is a duplicate. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_58_18"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_58_18"><B>Footnote 18</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_58_19"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_58_19"><B>Footnote 19</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_58_20"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_58_20"><B>Footnote 20</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is even less relevant than Nussbaum  being a novel. It raises ethical questions in a futuristic situation. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_58_21"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_58_21"><B>Footnote 21</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This book is concerned with the ethics of medical cloning, so is mostly tangential to my concerns. </li></ul> </center><br> <br><hr><h3 class = "Left">Printable Versions:</h3> <UL><li>Follow (<A Href="Notes_Print/NotesPrint_58_0_P_R.htm" TARGET = "_top">this link</A>) for level 0 (with reading list), and </li><li>Follow (<A Href="Notes_Print/NotesPrint_58_0_P.htm" TARGET = "_top">this link</A>) for level 0, and </li><li>Follow (<A Href="Notes_Print/NotesPrint_58_1_P.htm" TARGET = "_top">this link</A>) for level 1.</li></UL> <a name="TableOfPreviousVersions"></a><BR><HR><h3 class= "Left">Table of the Previous 7 Versions of this Note:</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=700> <TR><TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeCenter"><strong>Date</strong></TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeRight"><strong>Length</strong></TD> <TD WIDTH="70%" class = "BridgeLeft"><strong>Title</strong></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">10/04/2017 23:38:24</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">4853</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_58_42835985.htm">Clones</A></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">18/12/2010 19:58:05</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">1478</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_58_40530832.htm">Clones</A></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">21/08/2009 14:45:36</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">1483</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_58_40046615.htm">Clones</A></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">21/08/2009 14:38:24</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">1268</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_58_40046610.htm">Clones</A></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">21/08/2009 10:50:53</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">368</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_58_40046452.htm">Clones</A></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">26/11/2007 23:25:26</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">253</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_58_39412976.htm">Clones</A></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">12/08/2007 10:17:46</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">80</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_58_39306429.htm">Clones</A></TD></TR> </TABLE> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950><TR> <TH WIDTH="25%">Note last updated</TH> <TH WIDTH="50%">Reading List for this Topic</TH> <TH WIDTH="25%">Parent Topic</TH></TR> <TR><TD WIDTH="25%">24/04/2018 00:12:58</TD> <TD WIDTH="50%"><A HREF = "../../PaperCatalogIdentityFullSubTopic_500.htm" TARGET = "_top">Clones</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="25%"><A href ="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_32.htm">Thought Experiments</A></TD></TR> </TABLE></center> <hr><h3>Summary of Note Links from this Page</h3> <CENTER> <TABLE Class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_737.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Awaiting Attention (Personal Identity)</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_39.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Causality</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_63.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Contingent Identity</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_65.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Corpses</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_35.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Duplication</span></A></TD> </TR> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_33.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Fission</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#b3c6ff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_89.htm"><span title="Plug Note - Reading List TBA">Parfit</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#b3c6ff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_42.htm"><span title="Plug Note - Reading List TBA">Perdurantism</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_95.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Reincarnation</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#b3c6ff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_36.htm"><span title="Plug Note - Reading List TBA">Replication</span></A></TD> </TR> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_97.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Resurrection</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#b3ffb3" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_46.htm"><span title="High Quality">Teletransportation</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_32.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Thought Experiments</span></A></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P class = "Centered">To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.</P> <BR><HR><BR><h3>Summary of Note Links to this Page</h3> <CENTER> <TABLE Class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_35.htm#6"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Duplication</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_75.htm#5"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Human Persons</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1164.htm#11"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Non-Human Persons</span></A></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P class = "Centered">To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.</P> <br><hr><br><CENTER> <h3>Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=950> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Author</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Title</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Medium</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Extra Links</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"><B><B>Read?</B></B></TD> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Baker (Lynne Rudder)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">When Do Persons Begin and End?</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7312.htm#29">Paper</A> <img src="../../accept.png"alt="High Quality Abstract" Title="High Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Todman (Theo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">Thesis - Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17786.htm#1">Paper</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title="Medium Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Todman (Theo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">Thesis - Duplication</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17810.htm#7">Paper</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title="Medium Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Todman (Theo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">Thesis - Human Persons</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17826.htm#6">Paper</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title="Medium Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Todman (Theo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">Thesis - Non-Human Persons</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21678.htm#12">Paper</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title="Medium Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> </TABLE></center> <CENTER> <br><hr><br><h3>References & Reading List</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=950> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Author</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Title</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Medium</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Source</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"><B>Read?</B></TD> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Ackerman (Felicia)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Flourish Your Heart in This World</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9589.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Agar (Nicholas)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Cloning and Identity</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4975.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Volume 28,Number 1, February 2003, pp. 9-26(18).</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Brennan (Andrew)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Survival</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11406.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Synthese June 1984; 59: 339-362</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Brock (Dan W.)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9579.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Dawkins (Richard)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">What's Wrong with Cloning?</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9573.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Doniger (Wendy)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Sex and the Mythological Clone</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9578.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Dworkin (Andrea)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Sasha</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9528.htm">Paper - Cited</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Elshtain (Jean Bethke)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">To Clone or Not to Clone</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9581.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Epstein (Richard A.)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">A Rush to Caution: Cloning Human Beings</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9586.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Eskridge (William N.) & Stein (Edward)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Queer Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9577.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Gale (Richard)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">On Some Pernicious Thought-Experiments</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5929.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../accept.png"alt="High Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy, Ed. Tamara Horowitz & Gerald J. Massey, 1991</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Gould (Stephen Jay)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Dolly's Fashion and Louis's Passion</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9572.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Hershenov (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">An Argument for Limited Human Cloning</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21112.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Public Affairs Quarterly. 14:3, July 2000, 245-258. Reprinted in What's Wrong? Applied Ethicists and Their Critics, ed. Boonin, D. and Odie, G. Oxford University Press, 2004, 688-693</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 12%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Hershenov (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Van Inwagen, Zimmerman, and the Materialist Conception of Resurrection</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5844.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../cancel.png"alt="Low Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Religious Studies, 38 pp. 1-19 (December 2002)</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 17%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Horowitz (Tamara) & Massey (Gerald J.)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1370.htm">Book - Cited (via Paper Cited)</A> <img src="../../cancel.png" alt="Low Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Bibliographical details to be supplied</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 4%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Ishiguro (Kazuo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Never Let Me Go</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1611.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../cancel.png" alt="Low Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Ishiguro (Kazuo) - Never Let Me Go</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Ishiguro (Kazuo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Never Let Me Go</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11761.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> <img src="../../accept.png"alt="High Quality Abstract" Title="Write-Up Complete"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Ishiguro (Kazuo) - Never Let Me Go, 2005</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Johnson (George)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Soul Searching</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9574.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Johnston (Mark)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">A New Refutation Of Death</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18345.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Johnston (Mark) - Surviving Death, 2010</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 5%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Johnston (Mark)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Surviving Death</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4033.htm">Book - Cited (via Paper Cited)</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png" alt="Medium Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Bibliographical details to be supplied</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 20%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Kamm (F.M.)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Moral Status and Personal Identity: Clones, Embryos, and Future Generations</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6660.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Paul, Miller & Paul - Personal Identity, 2005</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Miller (William Ian)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Sheep, Joking, Cloning and the Uncanny</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9575.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">National Bioethics Advisory Commission</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Recommendations of the Commission</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9588.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">National Bioethics Advisory Commission</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Religious Perspectives</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9580.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">National Bioethics Advisory Commission</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">The Science and Application of Cloning</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9571.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum (Martha)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Little C</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9591.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum (Martha) & Sunstein (Cass R.)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Clones and Clones - Introduction</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9569.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum (Martha) & Sunstein (Cass), Eds.</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Clones and Clones: Facts and Fantasies About Human Cloning</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1479.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png" alt="Medium Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum (Martha) & Sunstein (Cass), Eds. - Clones and Clones: Facts and Fantasies About Human Cloning</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 1%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Paul (Ellen), Miller (Fred) & Paul (Jeffrey), Eds.</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Personal Identity</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1415.htm">Book - Cited (via Paper Cited)</A> <img src="../../cancel.png" alt="Low Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Bibliographical details to be supplied</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 0%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Phillips (Adam)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Sameness Is All</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9576.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Posner (Eric A.) & Posner (Richard A.)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">The Demand for Human Cloning</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9585.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Rothman (Barbara Katz)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">On Order</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9587.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Shoemaker (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Personal Identity and Ethics: A Brief Introduction</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3382.htm">Book - Cited (via Paper Cited)</A> <img src="../../cancel.png" alt="Low Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Bibliographical details to be supplied</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Shoemaker (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Personal Identity and Immortality</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15141.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../accept.png"alt="High Quality Abstract" Title="Write-Up Complete"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Ethics: A Brief Introduction, 2009, Chapter 1</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Sunstein (Cass R.)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">The Constitution and the Clone</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9583.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Todman (Theo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Thesis - Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17786.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title="Write-Up Complete"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Tracy (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Human Cloning and the Public Realm: A Defense of Intuitions of the Good</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9582.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Tribe (Laurence)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">On Not Banning Cloning for the Wrong Reasons</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9584.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Tuttle (Lisa)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">World of Strangers</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9529.htm">Paper - Cited</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Williams (C.K.)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">My Clone</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9590.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Wilmut (I.), Schnieke (A.E.), McWhir (J.), Kind (A.J.) & Campbell (K.H.S.)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mamalian Cells</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9570.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Nussbaum & Sunstein - Clones and Clones</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Wolf (Susan)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Ban Cloning? Why NBAC Is Wrong</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22431.htm">Paper - By Subtopic</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 27, No. 5 (Sep. - Oct., 1997), pp. 12-15</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <a name="ColourConventions"></a><br><hr><br><h3 class = "Left">Text Colour Conventions</h3><OL TYPE="1"><li><FONT COLOR = "000000">Black</FONT>: Printable Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><li><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li></OL><BR> <center><BR><HR><BR><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950><TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD><TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD><TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-06T09:35" pubdate>06/08/2018 09:35:19</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR><TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD><TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD><TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD></TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR></BODY></HTML>