<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en"><head><meta charset="utf-8"><title>Printable Note - Personal Identity - Persistence Criteria (Theo Todman's Web Page) </title><link href="../../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <P ALIGN="Center"><FONT Size = 3 FACE="Arial"><B><HR>Theo Todman's Web Page<HR><p>For Text Colour-conventions (at end of page): <A HREF="#ColourConventions">Click Here</a></p><U>Personal Identity - Persistence Criteria</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_91_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_91_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>I will cover both persistence <u>criteria</u> and persistence <u>conditions</u> under this head. </li><li>Maybe the former term ( criteria ) focuses on epistemology (how we know something has persisted) and the latter ( conditions ) on metaphysics (what it takes for something to persist). </li><li>I suspect <A HREF = "../../../Authors/S/Author_Shoemaker (David).htm">David Shoemaker</A>  in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15141.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Immortality</A>"  of confusing the two (despite his explicit acknowledgement of the distinction) in his rejection of the soul criterion. </li><li>In brief, the persistence conditions for an object of a particular <a name="19"></a><U>kind</U><SUP>2</SUP> are the necessary and sufficient conditions for it <a name="19"></a><U>persist</U><SUP>3</SUP>, that is, to continue in existence. </li><li>With respect to <a name="19"></a><U>our</U><SUP>4</SUP> persistence criteria, David Shoemaker considers the following possibilities:- <ol type="1"><li><a name="19"></a><U>Soul Criterion</U><SUP>5</SUP> </li><li><a name="19"></a><U>Body Criterion</U><SUP>6</SUP> </li><li><a name="19"></a><U>Memory Criterion</U><SUP>7</SUP> </li><li><a name="19"></a><U>Brain</U><SUP>8</SUP>-based Memory Criterion</li><li><a name="19"></a><U>Psychological Criterion</U><SUP>9</SUP> </li><li><a name="19"></a><U>Biological Criterion</U><SUP>10</SUP> </li></ol></li><li>The first four feature in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15141.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Immortality</A>".</li><li>The final two in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15140.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity, Rational Anticipation, and Self-Concern</A>". </li><li>In "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15139.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Self-Regarding Ethics - Alternative Approaches</A>" Shoemaker considers two other alternatives:- <ol start = "7" type="1"><li><a name="19"></a><U>Narrative Identity</U><SUP>11</SUP>, and</li><li><a name="19"></a><U>Identity Doesn t Matter</U><SUP>12</SUP>. </li></ol></li><li>Most of the work of this Note will probably be undertaken under the guise of pursuing the Notes above. </li><li>This Note will also overlap to some extent with those on:-<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a><U>Criteria of Identity</U><SUP>13</SUP>, and<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a><U>Persistence</U><SUP>14</SUP>. </li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_91_15">Links</A></U><SUB>15</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_91_15"></A> to this Note, <A HREF = "../../Notes_0/Notes_91_Links.htm">Click here</A>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_91_16">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>16</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_91_16"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_91_17">include</A></U><SUB>17</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_91_17"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>Consequently, this Note has no reading list of its own, though it seems to have a categorised reading list containing miscategorised items. </li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a><U>place-holder</U><SUP>18</SUP>. </li></ul><FONT COLOR = "000000"><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_91_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_91_15"></A><B>Footnote 15</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_91_16"></A><B>Footnote 16</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_91_17"></A><B>Footnote 17</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "000000"></P><B>Note last updated:</B> 17/08/2018 21:59:02<BR> </P><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 2: (Kinds)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_80_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_80_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>This may be an important Note, particularly in distinguishing <a name="19"></a>Natural Kinds from other Kinds, as the question whether persons (or even <a name="19"></a>human persons) fall under a natural kind concept is critical to the debate between <a name="19"></a>animalists and those favouring the <a name="19"></a>constitution view. </li><li>There is considerable overlap between this Note and the following:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="19"></a>Natural Kinds.</li><li><a name="19"></a>Sortals</li><li><a name="19"></a>Phase Sortals </li></ol></li><li>Basically, I can t see much difference between Sortals and Kinds, and Natural Kinds are obviously a subset of Kinds. Phase sortals are a bit like jobs, so may not be kinds at all  but if (as I believe) persons are phase sortals of <a name="19"></a>human animals, then this can t be right if persons form a kind. </li><li>This Note should focus on the more general aspects of this nexus of ideas. </li><li>The study-list for Kinds should be quite extensive, but  based on the categorised reading list below  I don t seem to have much that s not covered by  <a name="19"></a>Natural Kinds . </li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_80_11">Links</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_80_11"></A> to this Note, <A HREF = "../../Notes_0/Notes_80_Links.htm">Click here</A>. I ve restricted the list to just  kinds rather than including  kind , but there are still too many links  many of them irrelevant  to process. </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_80_12">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_80_12"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_80_13">include</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_80_13"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3954.htm">Ayers (Michael R.) - Locke on 'Masses of Matter'</A>", Ayers</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20013.htm">Baur (Michael) - Review of 'Kinds of Being: A Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms' by E. J. Lowe</A>", Baur</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6427.htm">Butchvarov (Panayot) - Being Qua Being: Introduction</A>", Butchvaryov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4124.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Kinds of Minds: Preface</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5391.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - How Things Persist: Introduction</A>", Hawley</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3508.htm">Olson (Eric) - Persistence</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3506.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Human Animal: Introduction</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12010.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? The Question</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5195.htm">Rosenkrantz (Gary) - Reflections on the Ontological Status of Persons</A>", Rosenkrantz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15140.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity, Rational Anticipation, and Self-Concern</A>", Shoemaker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7614.htm">Trettin (Kathe) - Persons and Other Trope Complexes. Reflections on Ontology and Normativity</A>", Trettin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3620.htm">Unger (Peter) - A Physically Based Approach To Our Survival</A>", Unger</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3532.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Material Beings: Preface</A>", Van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8526.htm">Wiggins (David) - Preface: Sameness and Substance Renewed</A>", Wiggins</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5142.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Generation and Corruption</A>", Wilson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5144.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Identity and Sortals: Why Relative Identity Is Self-Contradictory</A>", Wilson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5143.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Personal Identity Naturalized: Our Bodies, Our Selves</A>", Wilson</li></ol></li><li>For a reading list, probably best to start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6411.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - More Kinds of Being: A Further Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_80_14">Lowe</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_80_14"></A>, and then &rarr; </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_572.htm">Doepke (Frederick) - The Kinds of Things: A Theory of Personal Identity Based on Transcendental Argument</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_80_15">Doepke</A></U><SUB>15</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_80_15"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1443.htm">Elder (Crawford) - Real Natures and Familiar Objects</A>", Elder, Read the Synopsis first.<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7797.htm">Elder (Crawford) - Real Natures and Familiar Objects: Synopsis</A>", Elder</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5292.htm">French (Peter) - Kinds and Persons</A>", French</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20382.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Manifest Kinds</A>", Johnston</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12185.htm">Kornblith (Hilary) - Concepts and Kinds</A>", Kornblith</li></ol> </li><li>This is a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_80_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_80_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_80_12"></A><B>Footnote 12</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_80_13"></A><B>Footnote 13</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_80_14"></A><B>Footnote 14</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This supercedes "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_640.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Kinds of Being: Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms</A>", useful for reference only </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_80_15"></A><B>Footnote 15</B>: I doubt this has much to do with Kinds as such  despite the book s title  but is more to do with Doepke s ideas on PID. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 17/08/2018 17:35:31<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 4: (What are We?)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_734_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_734_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>This Note cannot answer this question. Rather, it ll try to consider the sort of desiderata necessary for formulating and answering the question, and for deciding between the various candidate answers. </li><li>For the present, I just mention that I need to distinguish, as candidates for what we are, (human-)<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>animals, <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>organisms, <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>persons, <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>bodies, <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>beings and <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>brains. </li><li>Additionally, I need to treat of <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>selves <BR>and maybe contrast terms like  <A HREF = "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mensch" TARGET = "_top">Mensch</A> (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mensch) with  person .</li><li><B>We</B>: the use of the plural is significant. However, the determination of  we as  the sort of entity likely to be reading this paper isn t quite right, even though Dennett and others use similar expressions. Refer to the first parts of "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12473.htm">Brandom (Robert) - Toward a Normative Pragmatics</A>" in "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2711.htm">Brandom (Robert) - Making It Explicit: Reasoning, Representing & Discursive Commitment</A>" for inspiration on  We .</li><li><B>Intelligibility</B>: this is a reciprocal relationship. We find others (of  our sort) intelligible, and it is important that they find us intelligible in return. Does this thereby make R =  finds intelligible an equivalence relation, dividing the world into equivalence classes of mutually intelligible individuals, or does R come in degrees and fall prey to <a name="19"></a>Sorites paradoxes?</li><li>For my Thesis Chapter on this topic, follow this <a name="19"></a>link.</li><li>For a page of Links to this Note, <A HREF = "../../Notes_7/Notes_734_Links.htm">Click here</A>.</li><li>The reading lists below are somewhat bloated; but, in general, only a small portion of the works cited needs to be addressed in the context of this question. No doubt the best place to start is<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12470.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We?</A>" (the Paper), followed by<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2710.htm">Olson (Eric) - What are We?</A>" (the Book). </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_734_11">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_734_11"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_734_12">include</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_734_12"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3803.htm">Baillie (James) - What Am I?</A>", Baillie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14448.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Big-Tent Metaphysics</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3674.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons in the Material World</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5137.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Precis of 'Persons & Bodies: A Constitution View'</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14452.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Response to Eric Olson</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21333.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Review of 'What Are We? A Study in Personal Ontology' by Eric T. Olson</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4282.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - What Am I?</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21015.htm">Belshaw (Christopher) - Review of Paul Snowdon's 'Persons, Animals, Ourselves'</A>", Belshaw</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23284.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - Animalism (SEP)</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23281.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - We Are Animals</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12473.htm">Brandom (Robert) - Toward a Normative Pragmatics</A>", Brandom</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21758.htm">Claxton (Guy) - Intelligence in the Flesh - Limbering Up: An Introduction</A>", Claxton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5807.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Are we essentially persons? Olson, Baker, and a reply</A>", DeGrazia</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>", Johnston</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20173.htm">Liao (S. Matthew) - The Organism View Defended</A>", Liao</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5910.htm">Lockwood (Michael) - When Does a Life Begin?</A>", Lockwood</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3586.htm">Nozick (Robert) - The Identity of the Self: Introduction</A>", Nozick</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12470.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We?</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3583.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Nagel's Brain</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15140.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity, Rational Anticipation, and Self-Concern</A>", Shoemaker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21153.htm">Smith (Barry C.), Broks (Paul), Kennedy (A.L.) & Evans (Jules) - What Does It Mean to Be Me?</A>", Smith, etc.</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20779.htm">Bailey (Andrew M.) - The Elimination Argument</A>", Bailey</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20778.htm">Bailey (Andrew M.) - You Needn t be Simple</A>", Bailey</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22072.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Animalism vs. Constitutionalism</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1327.htm">Blackburn (Simon) - Has Kant Refuted Parfit?</A>", Blackburn</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6366.htm">Broks (Paul) - Into the Silent Land: Travels in Neuropsychology</A>", Broks</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15968.htm">Bynum (Terrell Ward) - Two Philosophers of the Information Age</A>", Bynum</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_13/Abstract_13016.htm">Chitty (Andrew) - First Person Plural Ontology and Praxis</A>", Chitty</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6335.htm">Corcoran (Kevin) - Rethinking Human Nature: A Christian Materialist Alternative to the Soul</A>", Corcoran</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9451.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Natural Freedom</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21113.htm">Hershenov (David) - Animals, Persons and Bioethics</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5838.htm">McMahan (Jeff) - Identity</A>", McMahan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3602.htm">Noe (Alva) - Out of Our Heads: Why You Are Not Your Brain, and Other Lessons from the Biology of Consciousness</A>", Noe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2710.htm">Olson (Eric) - What are We?</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_734_13">Olson</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_734_13"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20709.htm">Parfit (Derek) - We Are Not Human Beings</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7629.htm">Richards (Janet Radcliffe) - Internicene Strife</A>", Richards</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21010.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - [P & not-A] Cases: An Introduction</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21029.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - The Self and Personal Identity</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_550.htm">Taylor (Charles) - Responsibility For Self</A>", Taylor</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6980.htm">Wilson (Robert) - Persons, Social Agency, and Constitution</A>", Wilson</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_734_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_734_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_734_12"></A><B>Footnote 12</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_734_13"></A><B>Footnote 13</B>: |..||.|There are hosts of papers by Olson that touch on this topic, but this book, and the paper of the same name, are enough in this context. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 17/08/2018 21:59:02<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 5: (Souls)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_100_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_100_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>There ought to be a division of labour between this Note and the Note on the <a name="19"></a>Soul Criterion of personal identity. </li><li>This parent Note ought to discuss what souls <U>are</U> (supposed to be), and what problems the concept encounters, while that on the Soul Criterion should focus on how souls (are supposed to) help with the problem of personal identity. </li><li>Some of the ground is also covered by the note on <a name="19"></a>Dualism. </li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_100_4">Links</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_100_4"></A> to this Note, <A HREF = "../../Notes_1/Notes_100_Links.htm">Click here</A>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_100_5">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>5</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_100_5"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_100_6">include</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_100_6"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>Both Notes <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_100_7">require</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_100_7"></A> the following <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_100_8">books</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_100_8"></A> to be read:-<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2664.htm">Brown (Warren), Murphy (Nancey) & Malony (H. Newton), Eds. - Whatever Happened to the Soul: Scientific and Theological Portraits of Human Nature</A>", Brown<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2304.htm">Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting: Biblical Anthropology and the Monism-dualism Debate</A>", Cooper<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6335.htm">Corcoran (Kevin) - Rethinking Human Nature: A Christian Materialist Alternative to the Soul</A>", Corcoran<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1383.htm">Corcoran (Kevin), Ed. - Soul, Body and Survival: Essays on the Metaphysics of Human Persons</A>", Corcoran<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_79.htm">Crabbe (James), Ed. - From Soul to Self</A>", Crabbe<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_127.htm">Moreland (J.P.) & Rae (Scott) - Body & Soul - Human Nature and the Crisis in Ethics</A>", Moreland+Rae<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2888.htm">Murphy (Nancey) - Bodies and Souls, or Spirited Bodies?</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_100_9">Murphy</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_100_9"></A><BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2762.htm">Porter (Roy) - Flesh in the Age of Reason - The Modern Foundations of Body and Soul</A>", Porter<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1143.htm">Swinburne (Richard) - The Evolution of the Soul</A>", Swinburne<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4046.htm">Ward (Keith) - The Battle for the Soul</A>", Ward</li><li>Currently, everything (such as it is  it s just a reading-list) resides under this parent Note. When I ve conducted (or written up) more research, I ll divide the text accordingly. </li><li>In principle, there is a categorised reading-list, but at the moment all reading material resides under this parent Note.</li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_100_10">might start with</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_100_10"></A>:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20676.htm">Angel (Leonard) - Since Physical Formulas are Not Violated, No Soul Controls the Body</A>", Angel</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_12/PaperSummary_12815.htm">Anscombe (G.E.M.) - Has Mankind One Soul: An Angel Distributed Through Many Bodies?</A>", Anscombe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20670.htm">Augustine (Keith) & Fishman (Yonatan I.) - The Dualist s Dilemma: The High Cost of Reconciling Neuroscience with a Soul</A>", Augustine & Fishman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_08/PaperSummary_8313.htm">Chisholm (Roderick) - On the Simplicity of the Soul</A>", Chisholm</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16126.htm">Chopra (Deepak) & Hameroff (Stuart) - Can science explain the soul?</A>", Chopra & Hameroff</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21886.htm">Hasker (William) - The Souls of Beasts and Men</A>", Hasker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8314.htm">Hoffman (Joshua) & Rosenkrantz (Gary) - Are Souls Unintelligible?</A>", Hoffman & Rosenkrantz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7455.htm">Hoffman (Joshua) & Rosenkrantz (Gary) - Souls and Bodies</A>", Hoffman & Rosenkrantz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15776.htm">Kagan (Shelly) - Arguments for the existence of the soul, Part I</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_100_11">Kagan</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_100_11"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6197.htm">Kim (Jaegwon) - Lonely Souls: Causality and Substance Dualism</A>", Kim</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20673.htm">Kim (Jaegwon) - What Could Pair a Nonphysical Soul to a Physical Body?</A>", Kim</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20941.htm">Ogilvie (Daniel M.) & Hamilton (Leonard W.) - Soul Beliefs: Causes and Consequences</A>", Ogilvie & Hamilton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20675.htm">Papineau (David) - There is No Trace of Any Soul Linked to the Body</A>", Papineau</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16455.htm">Phillips (D.Z.) - Dislocating the Soul</A>", Phillips</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5504.htm">Quinn (Philip L.) - Tiny Selves: Chisholm on the Simplicity of the Soul</A>", Quinn</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_534.htm">Quinton (Anthony) - The Soul</A>", Quinton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21949.htm">Swinburne (Richard) - Nature and immortality of the Soul</A>", Swinburne</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15986.htm">Turl (John) - Substance Dualism or Body-Soul Duality?</A>", Turl</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20674.htm">Wilson (David L.) - Nonphysical Souls Would Violate Physical Laws</A>", Wilson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17107.htm">Wright (N.T.) - Mind, Spirit, Soul and Body: All for One and One for All - Reflections on Paul s Anthropology in his Complex Contexts</A>", Wright </li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_100_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_100_4"></A><B>Footnote 4</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_100_5"></A><B>Footnote 5</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_100_6"></A><B>Footnote 6</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_100_7"></A><B>Footnote 7</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is becoming a shelf-load, so  require is rather strong! </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_100_8"></A><B>Footnote 8</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>In general, if a book is noted, its Chapters are not. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_100_9"></A><B>Footnote 9</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>For reviews, see <BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21334.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Review of 'Bodies and Souls, or Spirited Bodies?' by Nancey Murphy</A>", and<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21125.htm">Hershenov (David) - Review of Nancy Murphy's 'Bodies and Souls, or Spirited Bodies?'</A>". </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_100_10"></A><B>Footnote 10</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>There is a risk of this list getting out of hand as this is a very peripheral topic. </li><li>I may prune it in due course. Many items on the categorised reading list have just been ignored. </li><li>Items already pruned (lest they be raised later) include the following classics:-<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_729.htm">Aristotle, Lawson-Tancred (Hugh) - De Anima (On the Soul)</A>", Aristotle <BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1334.htm">Hume (David) - Of the Immortality of the Soul</A>", Hume <BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6055.htm">James (William) - The Theory of the Soul</A>", James<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6052.htm">Kant (Immanuel) - Refutation of Mendelssohn's Proof of the Permanence of the Soul</A>", Kant <BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_881.htm">Plato, Gallop (David) - Phaedo</A>", Plato <BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_06/PaperSummary_6050.htm">Voltaire - The Soul, Identity and Immortality</A>", Voltaire</li><li>Also, commentaries thereon:-<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_14/PaperSummary_14513.htm">Bostock (David) - The Soul and Immortality in Plato's Phaedo</A>" </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_100_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Also, Kagan s follow-on lectures on the existence and immortality of the soul. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 17/08/2018 21:59:02<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 6: (Bodily Continuity)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_54_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_54_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>Historically, philosophers have been divided into those that hold that <a name="19"></a>our <a name="19"></a>persistence criteria are fundamentally <a name="19"></a>psychological,<a name="19"></a> and those that think they are fundamentally <a name="19"></a>physical. </li><li>The classic paper that wrestles with this dilemma is "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_423.htm">Williams (Bernard) - The Self and the Future</A>".</li><li><A HREF = "../../../Authors/W/Author_Williams (Bernard).htm">Bernard Williams</A> is sometimes thought of as an <a name="19"></a>Animalist, possibly <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_54_8">because</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_54_8"></A> he s inclined to accept the Bodily Continuity (as against the <a name="19"></a>Psychological Continuity) approach to Personal Identity. But, this is probably a mistake, because:- <ol type="i"><li>The  Bodily Continuity view of personal identity is not to be confused with <a name="19"></a>Animalism, which requires the <a name="19"></a>Biological View. The Bodily Continuity view is consistent with my persisting as a <a name="19"></a>Cyborg or even an <a name="19"></a>Android. See <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_54_14">also</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_54_14"></A> <a name="19"></a>Siliconisation. </li><li>Also, the <a name="19"></a>persistence conditions of <a name="19"></a>bodies differ from those of <a name="19"></a>organisms in general or (human) <a name="19"></a>animals in particular. Consider the arguments about <a name="19"></a>corpses, which gives rise to the  Corpse Problem , an attempted <a name="19"></a>refutation of animalism. </li></ol></li><li><A HREF = "../../../Authors/B/Author_Baker (Lynne Rudder).htm">Lynne Rudder Baker</A> consistently contrasts her <a name="19"></a>Constitution View with that of a bodily view, rather than a biological view. She considers that we <a name="19"></a>persons are <a name="19"></a>constituted (maybe temporarily) by our <a name="19"></a>bodies. </li><li><A HREF = "../../../Authors/O/Author_Olson (Eric).htm">Eric Olson</A> distinguishes between <a name="19"></a>organisms and bodies, and is doubtful about the existence of the <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_54_27">latter</A></U><SUB>27</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_54_27"></A>. But he would disagree with Baker even if she claimed that we were constituted by human animals. </li><li>Note also, the <a name="19"></a>distinction between <a name="19"></a>continuity and connectedness. Continuity is critical to the persistence of bodies, but it is doubtful whether connectedness is. You could probably replace all the parts of a body over time, provided this is done gradually enough, and retain the same body (this is certainly true of organisms). However, it is said by some (eg. <a name="19"></a>Parfit) that a psychology disconnected from, though continuous with, another is not the same person. See his discussion of <a name="19"></a>Methuselah. </li><li>It seems to me that both the biological view and the bodily continuity view would (theoretically, at least) allow for <a name="19"></a>metamorphosis (provided, in the former case, that the <a name="19"></a>metamorphosis is into another organism). There are, however, <a name="19"></a>sortal objections to <a name="19"></a>metamorphosis. </li><li>Just what a  body is, and what the persistence criteria of bodies are, will be discussed in two other Notes:- <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Body, and <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Body Criterion. <BR>However, I ve not quite decided how the labour would be best distributed between these three Notes. I have parked the bulk of the reading lists under  Body . </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_54_38">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>38</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_54_38"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_54_39">include</A></U><SUB>39</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_54_39"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4982.htm">Beck (Simon) - Back To The Self And The Future</A>", Beck</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3972.htm">Noonan (Harold) - The Self and the Future</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5254.htm">Odegard (Douglas) - Personal and Bodily Identity</A>", Odegard</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2437.htm">Williams (Bernard) - Bodily Continuity and Personal Identity</A>", Williams</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_423.htm">Williams (Bernard) - The Self and the Future</A>", Williams</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6022.htm">Coburn (Robert) - Bodily Continuity and Personal Identity</A>", Coburn</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_06/PaperSummary_6027.htm">Gale (Richard) - A Note on Personal Identity and Bodily Continuity</A>", Gale</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_06/PaperSummary_6023.htm">Shorter (J.M.) - More About Bodily Continuity and Personal Identity</A>", Shorter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17139.htm">Wiggins (David) - Essentialism, Continuity, and Identity</A>", Wiggins</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_54_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_54_8"></A><B>Footnote 8</B>: According to most interpreters<a name="On-Page_Link_54_14"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 14</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Though the Note on Siliconisation focuses on the replacement of <U>neural</U> organic matter by silicon, the general idea could (more easily, as the technology is already partly there) be extended to the replacement of other body parts. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_54_27"></A><B>Footnote 27</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is to get round the  Corpse Problem noted previously. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_54_38"></A><B>Footnote 38</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_54_39"></A><B>Footnote 39</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 24/04/2018 00:12:58<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 7: (Memory)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_84_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_84_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>Obviously, if I were to become tempted by the <a name="19"></a>psychological criterion of personal identity, I would have to give an account of memory and <a name="19"></a>quasi-memory, and it would appear here. </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_84_4">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_84_4"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_84_5">include</A></U><SUB>5</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_84_5"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. Currently, just see the categorised reading-list. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_84_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_84_4"></A><B>Footnote 4</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_84_5"></A><B>Footnote 5</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 11/03/2018 20:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 8: (Brain)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_55_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_55_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>There is a view that <a name="19"></a>we are really, most fundamentally, our brains. It seems to promise some good things from both the  <a name="19"></a>psychological criterion and  <a name="19"></a>bodily criterion camps, since the brain is indeed part of the <a name="19"></a>body, and, in the absence of a <a name="19"></a>soul, the source of all our psychological functions. However, we seem to be much more than our brains. After all, who would want to be a <a name="19"></a>BIV (Brain in a Vat)? According to Johnston (see "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>"), BIVs are  maximally mutilated human beings; which seems to be along the right lines. Note the important distinction between your surviving in a maximally mutilated state (as a brain) and you  really being your brain.</li><li>This is an issue <a name="19"></a>Animalism has to contend with - whether a BIV is an animal. <A HREF = "../../../Authors/S/Author_Snowdon (Paul).htm">Paul Snowdon</A> <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_55_9">claims</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_55_9"></A> that no-one seems to think this, a view that Olson shares but on which he may be open to objection. He says that an animal with a prosthetic leg is a smaller animal with something non-animal attached. If this is admitted, don t we end up with a <a name="19"></a>sorites argument, that a BIV is a (very much) smaller animal; though not, I think, with any paradox? </li><li>The big question is whether an animal s brain is just another organ (like its liver) or whether it has some other status. That it is somehow special can be presupposed if we start conceptually with the brain as the core from which other parts are shaved off. Whether this is the right approach depends, I think, on what the brain does for the animal, and where the animal is on the phylogenetic tree. The brain is a much more important organ in some animals than others; in some lower animals it has no psychological functions and (maybe) its regulatory functions <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_55_11">aren t essential</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_55_11"></A>. </li><li>Why is the Woody Allen expostulation that his brain (in Sleeper)  (is) my second favourite organ amusing? Firstly, of course, because of the sexual innuendo and the ultimately strange prioritisation (since you can t enjoy sexual excitement without a brain), but also, I think, because your brain isn t an organ that you  have . Without your brain, there s no  you at all, or at least this is a strong intuition. </li><li>You can obviously (given even today s technology), do without a liver, and it seems that on a life-support machine your body can do without its brain  where the brain is looked upon merely as a regulator. But the reference of  <a name="19"></a>you is a bit slippery in these contexts. There is a sense in which you as an organism can do without a brain  on life support  but  you as an essentially psychological being cannot. The animalists claim that you  being identical to an animal  have no essential psychological predicates; yet it is difficult to resist the intuition that there s a reference of  you that does have essential psychological predicates. This is to you as a <a name="19"></a>person  but the big question is whether this person is a separate substance <a name="19"></a>constituted by the human animal, or is just a way of describing the animal when possessed of the appropriate psychological predicates. Saying that you can t do without your brain is just another way of saying that your psychological predicates are those most important to you (the animal); those without which the other predicates cannot be enjoyed. </li><li>The issue fundamentally concerns the integrity of <a name="19"></a>organisms. It is said that a brain isn t an organism; but does an organism have to be self-supporting (the main reason for denying the status of organisms to disembodied brains)? After all, we seem to be allowing that an organism on life support is correctly described as an organism. We ll discuss this further in its place. </li><li>These issues are especially important when we consider various <a name="19"></a>Thought Experiments, in particular <a name="19"></a>Brain Transplants. <a name="19"></a>Transplantation of all sorts seems to involve <a name="19"></a>fusion, with its <a name="19"></a>logical problems for identity (not just for persons).</li><li>Given that brains are important in lots of contexts related to personal identity, it is important to understand how they work  or at least to have some familiarity with some of what is known about how they work. Consequently, the reading lists below have some books on neuroscience. It is difficult to decide how the lists should be divided between this Note and that on the <a name="19"></a>Brain Criterion. As a first stab, the bulk appear under this Note, though some may be moved as I get further into the topic. </li><li>I ve tried to exclude from the lists items covered in other related notes, in particular:-<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>BIVs<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Brain Death<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Brain State Transfers<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Brain Transplants<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Commissurotomy<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Consciousness<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Siliconisation</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_55_29">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>29</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_55_29"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_55_30">include</A></U><SUB>30</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_55_30"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1165.htm">Bear (Mark), Connors (Barry) & Paradiso (Michael) - Neuroscience</A>", Bear Etc.</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22097.htm">Bess (Michael) - Why upgrading your brain could make you less human</A>", Bess</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21059.htm">Churchland (Patricia) - The Brains Behind Morality</A>", Churchland</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1340.htm">Churchland (Patricia) - Brain-wise: Studies in Neurophilosophy</A>", Churchland</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_191.htm">Churchland (Patricia) - Neurophilosophy - Towards a Unified Science of the Mind/Brain</A>", Churchland</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21057.htm">Crane (Tim) - The Mental States of Persons and their Brains</A>", Crane</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1186.htm">Damasio (Antonio) - Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain</A>", Damasio</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_802.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Where Am I?</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7955.htm">Edwards (Paul) - The Dependence of Consciousness on the Brain</A>", Edwards</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22515.htm">Epstein (Robert) - The empty brain</A>", Epstein</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6352.htm">Genova (Lisa) - Still Alice</A>", Genova</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22177.htm">Graziano (Michael) - Build-a-brain</A>", Graziano</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>", Johnston</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6284.htm">Kaku (Michio) - The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest To Understand, Enhance and Empower the Mind</A>", Kaku</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21721.htm">Lewin (Roger) - Is Your Brain Really Necessary?</A>", Lewin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_503.htm">MacKay (Donald) - Brains, Machines & Persons</A>", MacKay</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6322.htm">Marsh (Henry) - Do No Harm: Stories of Life, Death and Brain Surgery</A>", Marsh</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22524.htm">Miller (Kenneth D.) - Will You Ever Be Able to Upload Your Brain?</A>", Miller</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1171.htm">Parkin (Alan) - Explorations in Cognitive Neuropsychology</A>", Parkin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5094.htm">Steinhart (Eric) - Persons Versus Brains: Biological Intelligence in Human Organisms</A>", Steinhart</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1169.htm">Andrewes (David) - Neuropsychology: From Theory to Practice</A>", Andrewes</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_552.htm">Baker (Peter) - An Explanation of How Brains Think</A>", Baker (Peter)</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1163.htm">Bennett (M.R.) & Hacker (P.M.S.) - Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience</A>", Bennett & Hacker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_172.htm">Blakemore (Colin) & Greenfield (Susan), Eds. - Mindwaves: Thoughts on Intelligence, Identity and Consciousness</A>", Blakemore & Greenfield</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_68.htm">Borst (C.V.) - The Mind-Brain Identity Theory</A>", Borst</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6616.htm">Changizi (Mark A.) - The Brain from 25,000 Feet</A>", Changizi</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6414.htm">Claxton (Guy) - Intelligence in the Flesh: Why Your Mind Needs Your Body Much More Than it Thinks</A>", Claxton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1184.htm">Damasio (Antonio), Ed. - The 'Scientific American' Book of the Brain: The Best Writing on Consciousness</A>", Damasio</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1357.htm">DeMyer (William) - Neuroanatomy</A>", DeMyer</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_199.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Brainchildren - Essays on Designing Minds</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_204.htm">Eccles (John) - Evolution of the Brain, Creation of the Self</A>", Eccles</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1402.htm">Feinberg (Todd) - Altered Egos: How the Brain Creates the Self</A>", Feinberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_01/PaperSummary_1562.htm">Greenfield (Susan) - Soul, Brain and Mind</A>", Greenfield</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_543.htm">Jubak (Jim) - In the Image of the Brain - Breaking the Barrier Between the Human Mind and Intelligent Machines</A>", Jubak</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_516.htm">Kinsbourne (Marcel) - Asymmetrical Function of the Brain</A>", Kinsbourne</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6433.htm">Obler (Loraine K.) & Gjerlow (Kris) - Language and the Brain</A>", Obler</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_139.htm">Popper (Karl) & Eccles (John) - The Self and Its Brain</A>", Popper & Eccles</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_653.htm">Restak (Richard) - The Modular Brain</A>", Restak</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19207.htm">Smart (J.C.C.) - The Mind/Brain Identity Theory</A>", Smart</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1418.htm">Wilkerson (T.E.) - Minds, Brains and People</A>", Wilkerson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_505.htm">Wills (Christopher) - The Runaway Brain - The Evolution of Human Uniqueness</A>", Wills</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_55_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_55_9"></A><B>Footnote 9</B>: <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_737.htm">Where</a>?<a name="On-Page_Link_55_11"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I need to <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_737.htm">check</a> this. </li><li>The idea is that in some lower animals, regulation is distributed throughout the body, with the brain playing a less central role. </li><li>This is true of the octopus  a highly intelligent animal  with many neurones distributed throughout its tentacles. </li><li>The same is also true (though to a lesser extent) of human animals  the PNS undertakes various co-ordinating functions, which is why brain-transplant TEs are somewhat simplistic.</li><li>However, maybe I need to distinguish between different neural functions  regulation, coordination, sensation, etc. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_55_29"></A><B>Footnote 29</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_55_30"></A><B>Footnote 30</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 24/04/2018 00:12:58<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 9: (Psychological View)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_114_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_114_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>This is the view, originating with <a name="19"></a>Locke, that the matter of primary importance in matters of personal identity is the <a name="19"></a>psychological continuity (or maybe of psychological <a name="19"></a>connectedness). </li><li>No-one denies that our <a name="19"></a>psychology is important to us, but making it constitutive of our identity has led to much confusion and paradox. </li><li>In particular it encourages the idea that the same <a name="19"></a>human being may not be the same <a name="19"></a>person throughout its <a name="19"></a>life, or that the same person may  hop from one human being to another. </li><li>I wish to deny both these possibilities.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_114_9">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_114_9"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_114_10">include</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_114_10"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. Currently, just see the categorised reading-list. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_114_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_114_9"></A><B>Footnote 9</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_114_10"></A><B>Footnote 10</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 11/03/2018 20:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 10: (Biological View)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_53_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_53_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>The Biological View is that <a name="19"></a>we are biological <a name="19"></a>organisms, and  in particular  have the <a name="19"></a>persistence conditions of biological organisms. Since the organisms we are are obviously human <a name="19"></a>animals, this view is effectively just <a name="19"></a>Animalism. </li><li>The BV is to be distinguished from older physicalist variants  in particular the  <a name="19"></a>Body View .</li><li>The primary work addressing this topic is"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1337.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities</A>", though its focus is on what the persistence criteria of organisms are, rather on whether or not we are organisms.</li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_53_8">Links</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_53_8"></A> to this Note, <A HREF = "../../Notes_0/Notes_53_Links.htm">Click here</A>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_53_9">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_53_9"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_53_10">include</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_53_10"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21327.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - EmbryosandStemCellResearch</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4282.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - What Am I?</A>", Baker<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4426.htm">Olson (Eric) - Reply to Lynne Rudder Baker</A>"</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20713.htm">Bourget (David) & Chalmers (David) - What Do Philosophers Believe?</A>", Bourget&Chalmers</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4303.htm">Carter (William) - Will I Be a Dead Person?</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1385.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Human Identity and Bioethics</A>", DeGrazia, 2005 <BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21119.htm">Hershenov (David) - Review of David DeGrazia s Human Identity and Bioethics</A>", Hershenov, 2008</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_130.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Human Animal - Personal Identity Without Psychology</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_53_11">Olson</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_53_11"></A><BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3507.htm">Olson (Eric) - Psychology and Personal Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3508.htm">Olson (Eric) - Persistence</A>"<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3509.htm">Olson (Eric) - Why We Need Not Accept the Psychological Approach</A>"</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4739.htm">Olson (Eric) - Was I Ever a Fetus?</A>", Olson </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3382.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Ethics: A Brief Introduction</A>", Shoemaker, 2009 </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1337.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities</A>", Wilson</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start as below. It is somewhat arbitrary as to which works fall under this topic, and which under the <a name="19"></a>Biological Criterion or <a name="19"></a>Animalism. I ve tended to have a rather full list of those items above that I ve read, but the  outstanding list is minimalist. <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21651.htm">Cerullo (Michael A.) - Uploading and Branching Identity</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_53_14">Cerullo</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_53_14"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6471.htm">Young (J.Z.) - An Introduction to the Study of Man</A>", Young</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_53_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_53_8"></A><B>Footnote 8</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_53_9"></A><B>Footnote 9</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_53_10"></A><B>Footnote 10</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_53_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Olson is one of the primary exponents of the Biological View, so almost anything by him might be cited. </li><li>I ve restricted the list to those items that  in the text or comments I ve incorporated on-line  explicitly use the term. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_53_14"></A><B>Footnote 14</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Very tangentially relevant, but <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1246.htm">Uploading</a> and the BV are antithetical theories of PID. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 17/08/2018 17:35:31<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 11: (Narrative Identity)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_905_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_905_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>Narrative identity isn t really an account of numerical identity, but is dependent on it. It is analogous to the <a name="19"></a>PV, but is closer to what most non-philosophers usually mean by  personal identity ; saying someone is  no longer the same person implies such a change in personality that their life no longer fits into a single narrative. </li><li>The most convenient introduction is probably in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11993.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Ethics</A>", section 2.3 (<A HREF = "https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/identity-ethics/#NarCri" TARGET = "_top">Link</A> (https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/identity-ethics/#NarCri)). </li><li>To quote:- <ul type="square"><FONT COLOR = "800080"><li>what makes some feature mine may actually be making reference to a non-numerical type of identity, a type of identity we are thinking of when addressing the familiar question of an identity crisis:  Who am I really? This is the question of identity as proper attributability, as providing an account of one's true self and the various attributes genuinely belonging to it. </li><li>the <em>Narrative Criterion of Personal Identity</em>: what makes an action, experience, or psychological characteristic properly attributable to some person (and thus a proper part of his or her true identity) is its correct incorporation into the self-told story of his or her life. & Narrative identity is thus really about a kind of psychological unity, but not just an artless or random unity. </li><li>for that subject of experiences to be a person, a genuine moral agent, those experiences must be actively unified, must be gathered together into the life of one narrative ego by virtue of a story the subject tells that weaves them together, giving them a kind of coherence and intelligibility they wouldn't otherwise have had. This is how the various experiences and events come to have any real meaning at all  rather than being merely isolated events  by being part of a larger story that relates them to one another within the context of one life </li><li>What explains my special sort of concern for myself is that I'm in fact an extended narrative ego  not some time-slice concerned about the well-being of some future time-slice  and I'm constantly extending that narrative into the future, so my concern is <em>global</em>, a concern for the whole self I'm creating via this story, the whole self whose various parts are mine.</li><li>what makes some past action mine (for which I'm eligible for praise or blame) is that it flowed from my central values, beliefs, and experiences, that there's a coherent story I may tell uniting it to the other elements of my life. </li></ul></FONT> </li><li>Shoemaker sees a problem:- <ul type="square"><FONT COLOR = "800080"><li>What matters to us with respect to all of our practical concerns is that we ourselves continue to exist: it's a necessary presupposition of my rational anticipation, self-concern, possibilities for compensation, and so on that I myself persist, but this is an issue of numerical identity. Another way to put this is that one can't be a person, on the narrative view, unless one gathers up the various experiences one has as a subject of experiences into a coherent narrative, but then the identity of that subject of experiences must be preserved across time for its experiences to be so gathered up. </FONT></li><li>If narrative identity depends on numerical identity, then it is as subject to <a name="19"></a>fission-problems as accounts of numerical identity. </li></ul> </li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_905_4">Links</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_905_4"></A> to this Note, <A HREF = "../../Notes_9/Notes_905_Links.htm">Click here</A>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_905_5">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>5</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_905_5"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_905_6">include</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_905_6"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>A fairly full reading list might be:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6120.htm">Alexander (Ronald) - The Self and Narrative Identity</A>", Alexander</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6470.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Human Persons: Narrative Identity and Self-Creation</A>", DeGrazia</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5444.htm">Schechtman (Marya) - The Narrative Self-Constitution View</A>", Schechtman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15139.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Self-Regarding Ethics - Alternative Approaches</A>", Shoemaker_David</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5003.htm">Teichert (Dieter) - Narrative, Identity and the Self</A>", Teichert </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_02/PaperSummary_2561.htm">Thomas (Laurence) - Group Autonomy and Narrative Identity: Blacks and Jews</A>", Thomas </li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_905_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_905_4"></A><B>Footnote 4</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_905_5"></A><B>Footnote 5</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_905_6"></A><B>Footnote 6</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 17/08/2018 17:35:31<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 12: (Parfit)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_89_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_89_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>Derek Parfit is one of the most important contemporary philosophers to have entered the fray to discuss Personal Identity. </li><li>I read "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_41.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Reasons and Persons</A>" back in 2004/5, but took no notes, so need to read it again. </li><li>Parfit is famous for the dictum  identity is not what matters in survival . <ol type="i"><li>I have a <a name="19"></a>note on this that  again at the time of writing  needs some work! </li><li>I intend to cover this amongst other general metaphysical matters in <a name="19"></a>Chapter 4 of my Thesis. </li><li>My view remains that there must be some confusion in this dictum, in that survival is the same as persistence, and without identity there is no persistence, so identity is a necessary condition for survival and must, therefore,  matter . </li><li>There may well be situations wherein other things matter  either to others or to myself  more than my survival, but this is not the same thing. </li><li>Also, Parfit espouses a <a name="19"></a>psychological view of personal identity, and has many interesting things to say on whether  given the psychological difference between myself now and my future self  I should make provision for someone to whom I am only weakly psychologically <a name="19"></a>connected, and whether others should honour advance directives made by my former self.</li><li>My view on that remains that I m stuck with my <a name="19"></a>FPP, which persists (though it may degrade) through all the changes in my psychology, and that prudence demands that I take this into account. It matters. </li></ol> </li><li>Parfit has invented or refined a number of interesting <a name="19"></a>TEs to do with <a name="19"></a>Fission, <a name="19"></a>Fusion or <a name="19"></a>Teletransportation. </li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_89_11">Links</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_89_11"></A> to this Note, <A HREF = "../../Notes_0/Notes_89_Links.htm">Click here</A>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_89_12">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_89_12"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_89_13">include</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_89_13"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>Apart from (sections of) "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_41.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Reasons and Persons</A>", the works by Parfit I really need to <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_89_14">focus</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_89_14"></A> on are:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4760.htm">Brueckner (Anthony) - Parfit On What Matters In Survival</A>", Brueckner</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4718.htm">Cassam (Quassim) - Parfit on Persons</A>", Cassam</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_81.htm">Dancy (Jonathan), Ed. - Reading Parfit</A>", Dancy, especially</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1327.htm">Blackburn (Simon) - Has Kant Refuted Parfit?</A>", Blackburn</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20118.htm">Blackburn (Simon) - Review of Derek Parfit's 'On What Matters'</A>", Blackburn</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3745.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Parfit and 'What Matters'</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3971.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Parfit and What Matters in Survival</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6355.htm">Parfit (Derek) - On What Matters: Volume One</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6356.htm">Parfit (Derek) - On What Matters: Volume Two</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5657.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Comments</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_542.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Lewis, Perry, and What Matters</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4761.htm">Parfit (Derek) - The Indeterminacy Of Identity: A Reply To Brueckner</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_559.htm">Parfit (Derek) - The Unimportance of Identity</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_325.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Personal Identity</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3574.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Why Our Identity is Not What Matters</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5246.htm">Parfit (Derek) - On 'The Importance of Self-Identity'</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4433.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Review of Derek Parfit's 'Reasons and Persons'</A>", Shoemaker</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_89_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_89_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_89_12"></A><B>Footnote 12</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_89_13"></A><B>Footnote 13</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_89_14"></A><B>Footnote 14</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I ve ignored here those many papers on  what matters that are not specifically related to Parfit.</li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 17/08/2018 21:59:02<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 13: (Criteria of Identity)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_904_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_904_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>I m not sure whether I ll have much more to say under this head than under the topic of <a name="19"></a>Persistence Criteria, though in fact  at the moment  I seem to have little to say on that topic, though more to say on <a name="19"></a>Persistence itself. </li><li>Maybe the distinction between Identity and Persistence criteria is that the former can be synchronic, or refer to multiple sightings of what may be the same thing. The latter refers to <a name="19"></a>change. </li><li>We might want to be assured that the Morning Star is (identical to) the Evening Star, which is Venus  and  indeed  whether it is <a name="19"></a>necessarily identical to Venus, given that it <u>is</u> Venus. Or so claims <A HREF = "../../../Authors/K/Author_Kripke (Saul).htm">Saul Kripke</A>. This is the topic of  Identity Criteria , even if Venus remains unchanged during the period of interest. </li><li>Persistence criteria  in this example  would relate to whether Venus would remain Venus if it merged with a large asteroid and a hunk broke off, or suchlike. </li><li>For the moment, I just note that there are two categories of criterion:- <BR>&rarr; Metaphysical and <BR>&rarr; Epistemological.</li><li>Metaphysical criteria are those that, if they obtain, establish identity irrespective of whether anyone knows about them. </li><li>Epistemological criteria reflect how we <U>know</U> that identity obtains. </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_904_6">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_904_6"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_904_7">include</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_904_7"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8898.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - Principles of Composition and Criteria of Identity</A>", Hawley</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6000.htm">Oderberg (David) - Continuity as the Criterion of Identity Over Time: The Classical Theory of Continuity</A>", Oderberg</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9805.htm">Garbacz (Pawel) - What is a level of a criterion of identity?</A>", Garbacz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6251.htm">Griffin (Nicholas) - Criteria Of Identity</A>", Griffin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3629.htm">Hudson (Hud) - The Criterion of Personal Identity</A>", Hudson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1936.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Objects and Criteria of Identity</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3418.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Sortal Terms and Criteria of Identity</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3446.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - What Is a Criterion Of Identity?</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4048.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Absolute Identity and Criteria of Identity</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4050.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Absolute Identity and Criteria of Identity Concluded</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3445.htm">Williamson (Timothy) - Criteria of Identity and the Axiom Of Choice</A>", Williamson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PaperSummary_7461.htm">Wollheim (Richard) - Are the criteria of identity that hold for a work of art in the different arts aesthetically relevant</A>", Wollheim</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6615.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Criteria of Identity and the 'Identity Mystics'</A>", Zimmerman</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_904_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_904_6"></A><B>Footnote 6</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_904_7"></A><B>Footnote 7</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 08/02/2018 18:24:29<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 14: (Persistence)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_90_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_90_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>Persistence is the continuing in existence of one thing from one time to another. </li><li>Different <a name="19"></a>kinds of thing have different kinds of <a name="19"></a>persistence criteria. </li><li>My interest is in the persistence of <a name="19"></a>Persons, or at least of beings such as Us; consequently I need to know <a name="19"></a>what kind of thing we are. </li><li>This Note partly acts as an umbrella for three other items that represent different theories or account of persistence, namely <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Endurantism, <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Perdurantism and <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Exdurantism. </li><li>See also the Notes on <BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Time, and<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>Change. </li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_90_11">Links</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_90_11"></A> to this Note, <A HREF = "../../Notes_0/Notes_90_Links.htm">Click here</A>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_90_12">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_90_12"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_90_13">include</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_90_13"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere  ie. in the Notes above) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6021.htm">Carter (William) & Hestevold (H. Scott) - On Passage and Persistence</A>", Carter & Hestvold, 1994</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4724.htm">Haslanger (Sally) - Persistence Through Time</A>", Haslanger, 2003</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1390.htm">Haslanger (Sally) & Kurtz (Roxanne), Eds. - Persistence : Contemporary Readings</A>", Haslanger, 2006</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1345.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - How Things Persist</A>", Hawley, 2006</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19964.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - Persistence and Determination</A>", Hawley, 2008</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3704.htm">Hirsch (Eli) - The Persistence of Objects: Introduction</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_90_14">Hirsch, 1982</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_90_14"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3627.htm">Hudson (Hud) - Persistence and the Partist View</A>", Hudson, 2001</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4174.htm">Loux (Michael) - Concrete Particulars II: Persistence Through Time</A>", Loux, 2002</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4594.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Persistence and Substance</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_90_15">Lowe, 2001</A></U><SUB>15</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_90_15"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22018.htm">Madden (Rory) - Human Persistence</A>", Madden, 2016</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4327.htm">Merricks (Trenton) - Persistence, Parts and Presentism</A>", Merricks, 1999</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1372.htm">Oderberg (David) - The Metaphysics of Identity Over Time</A>", Oderberg, 1993</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21129.htm">Oderberg (David) - Persistence</A>", Oderberg, 2009</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5211.htm">Olson (Eric) - Relativism and Persistence</A>", Olson, 1997</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3508.htm">Olson (Eric) - Persistence</A>", Olson, 1999</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20279.htm">Pollock (John L.) - Reasoning about Change and Persistence: A Solution to the Frame Problem</A>", Pollock, 1997</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6214.htm">Sider (Ted) - Persistence and Parthood Seminar</A>", Sider, 1998</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5355.htm">Sider (Ted) - Recent Work: Identity Over Time</A>", Sider, 2000</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_442.htm">Sider (Ted) & Zimmerman (Dean) - Persistence - Bibliography</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_90_16">Sider+Zimmerman, 2004</A></U><SUB>16</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_90_16"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6215.htm">Sider (Ted) & Zimmerman (Dean) - Persistence Seminar</A>", Sider+Zimmerman, 2004</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9535.htm">Vander Laan (David) - Persistence and Divine Conservation</A>", Vander Laan, 2006</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9770.htm">Wasserman (Ryan) - Framing the Debate over Persistence</A>", Wasserman, 2004</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6633.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Persistence and Presentism</A>", Zimmerman, 1996</li><li>Also, see <A HREF = "http://metaphysicist.com/problems/persistence/" TARGET = "_top">Bob Doyle: Persistence</A> (http://metaphysicist.com/problems/persistence/). </li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="19"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_90_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_90_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_90_12"></A><B>Footnote 12</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_90_13"></A><B>Footnote 13</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_90_14"></A><B>Footnote 14</B>: And the rest of Part 1 of "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_32.htm">Hirsch (Eli) - The Concept of Identity</A>". <a name="On-Page_Link_90_15"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 15</B>: And other Chapters in "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_639.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - The Possibility of Metaphysics: Substance, Identity and Time</A>". <a name="On-Page_Link_90_16"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 16</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>The Bibliography  and the Seminnar  cover much beyond Persistence as such. </li><li>I need to extract the relevant items to the various sub-topics. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 17/08/2018 21:59:02<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 15: (Awaiting Attention (Personal Identity))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> This note is simply a place-holder, the point of which is to use the jump-table facility that appears dynamically at the bottom of this note to keep tabs on the areas of this website (within the above Note-Group) that await the most urgent attention.<BR><BR>If the table  Links to this Page only contains the  Awaiting Attention item, this means that there are no items waiting attention (since the  Awaiting Attention item is the one that only links to pages such as this one).</P><B>Note last updated:</B> 10/11/2007 13:17:46<BR><BR><HR> <a name="ColourConventions"></a><BR><P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Text Colour Conventions</U></B><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "000000">Black</FONT>: Printable Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018<LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018<LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</OL><hr><BR><a href = "../../../index.htm">Return to Home page</a><BR><B>Timestamp: 17/08/2018 22:14:20. 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