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Personal Identity

Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)

(Text as at 01/10/2021 13:17:46)

(For earlier versions of this Note, see the table at the end)


Abstract




Research Methodology


Chapter Introduction
  1. As we saw in Chapter 024, nothing is more obvious than that we are Human Animals5. The disadvantages of whole-hearted acceptance of this seemingly obvious fact – leading to ‘conversion’ to Animalism6 – are at least twofold:-
    1. Firstly, that it seems to demote human beings from their status of being made in the image of the God many – maybe most – people no longer really believe in. There are two responses to this: Either
      1. Deny that it does, or
      2. Accept this claim and agree that the differences between human beings and other animals are those of degree rather than kind.
    2. A second disadvantage is that accepting that we are human animals makes the prospects for post-mortem survival look bleak. This is addressed in Chapter 117.
  2. So, while saying that we are human animals might seem to be the default position – and so the burden is on others to demonstrate that we are not – the historical situation places a burden on the Animalist to present the case for animalism with as much rigour as possible. Saying ‘it’s obvious’ isn’t enough.
  3. Firstly, it needs to be made clear what the claim that ‘we are animals’ – the Biological View8 – amounts to. The Animalist makes the claim that this is one of numerical identity. We’re not simply animals in the sense of having animal bodies, while ‘really’ being something else. Being members of the species Homo Sapiens9 is what we really are.
  4. So, our persistence criteria are Biological Criteria10, and the implications of this need to be spelled out.
  5. Despite the ‘obviousness’ of the Biological View, most contemporary philosophers are unconvinced, as was noted in the first Chapter. I have a Note detailing just which Philosophers can be counted as Animalists11. Eric Olson12 was probably responsible for clarifying and popularising the position. I also have a Note on David Wiggins13, though his status as a card-carrying Animalist is doubted by some, including Olson.
  6. The Biological View is often referred to as the Organism View, so we need to consider what Organisms14 are, and – indeed – what Life15 is, including when it starts – Animation16. I’ve referenced my Note on Quantum Mechanics17 here as recent research has attempted to implicate it in the mechanism of life. We discuss life’s end – Death18 – in Chapter 1119.
  7. Recently, some philosophers have tried ascribing intentionality to Plants20, which I think is muddying the waters, just as is trying to include fish in the moral community.
  8. We need to consider Evolution21, especially as this is a major consideration in why we are animals. I also have Notes on Genetics22 and Origins23, which are connected to this subject and others.
  9. After all this ground-clearing, we need to consider Animals24 themselves – especially those at the higher end of the spectrum most closely related to Homo Sapiens in their abilities and potential moral considerability, leading on to Animal Rights25.
  10. Finally, we get down to the actual Arguments for Animalism26, of which Olson’s favourite is the Thinking Animal Argument27.



Links to Notes
  1. Animalism28
    1. Human Animals29
    2. Biological View31
    3. Biological Criterion32
    4. Animalists33
  2. Organisms37
    1. Life38
    2. Plants41
    3. Evolution42
  3. Animals45
    1. Animal Rights46
  4. Arguments for Animalism47
    1. Thinking Animal Argument48



Main Text
  1. To be supplied49.



Concluding Remarks
  1. Having discussed Animalism, we can now in our next Chapter50 turn to the main alternative I want to consider, the Constitution View and the arguments for it.
  2. This is work in progress51.


Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed52
  1. This section attempts to derive the readings lists automatically from those of the underlying Notes, but removing duplicated references. The list is divided into:-
  2. As this is a “core” chapter, the coverage of the literature will be very complete, if not exhaustive, when it comes to Animalism itself.
  3. For background topics, it will be more selective55. Hence, I have divided the reading list into two.
  4. I’ve not been overly careful to segregate the reading-list of this Chapter from that of Chapter 856. I will address the segregation in due course. There will, in any case, be some overlap.
  5. Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters.



Works on this topic that I’ve actually read57, include the following:-
  1. Animalism
    1. Animalism58
    2. Human Animals68
    3. Biological View72
    4. Biological Criterion76
    5. Animalists
  2. Organisms
    1. Organisms89
    2. Life
    3. Plants93
    4. Evolution94
  3. Animals
    1. Animals101
    2. Animal Rights104
  4. Arguments for Animalism
    1. Arguments for Animalism108
    2. Thinking Animal Argument109


A further reading list might start with:-
  1. Animalism
    1. Animalism110
    2. Human Animals111
    3. Biological View113
    4. Biological Criterion115
    5. Animalists
  2. Organisms
    1. Organisms121
    2. Life
    3. Plants127
    4. Evolution128
  3. Animals
    1. Animals131
    2. Animal Rights133
  4. Arguments for Animalism
    1. Arguments for Animalism134
      • General:
        1. No items to list.
    2. Thinking Animal Argument135



In-Page Footnotes:

Footnote 36: Footnote 52: Footnote 55: Footnote 64: Footnote 70: Footnote 74: Footnote 75: Footnote 83: Footnote 86: Footnote 88: Footnote 97: Footnote 103: Footnote 105: Footnote 106: Footnote 107: Footnote 114: Footnote 117: Footnote 119: Footnote 123: Footnote 124: Footnote 132:


Table of the Previous 9 Versions of this Note:

Date Length Title
29/03/2021 19:23:31 21893 Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)
22/03/2021 00:28:48 17313 Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)
08/02/2021 13:16:19 6946 Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)
18/04/2019 18:18:43 6920 Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)
05/04/2016 23:19:41 6673 Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)
13/01/2015 19:07:41 6617 Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)
06/11/2014 10:13:26 6463 Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)
02/10/2014 17:12:29 6172 Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)
22/07/2014 22:23:31 5343 Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)



Note last updated Reading List for this Topic Parent Topic
01/10/2021 13:17:46 None available Thesis - Introduction

Summary of Note Links from this Page

Animal Rights Animalism Animalism - Arguments For Animalists Animals
Animation Awaiting Attention (Personal Identity) Baker - Persons and Bodies - Precis Baker - Persons and Bodies - Response to Olson Baker - The Human Animal: Response to Olson
Baker - The Importance Of Being a Person Baker - What Am I? Biological Criterion Biological View Brandom - Toward a Normative Pragmatics (Introduction)
Death DeGrazia - Are We Essentially Persons? Evolution Genetics Homo Sapiens
Human Animals Jen_080218 (Olson) Jen_080303 (Olson, Baillie) Jen_080317 (Baker) Le Fanu - Doubts About Darwin
Life Markosian - The Human Animal: Three Problems for Olson Noonan - Persons and Bodies - Response Olson Olson - Immanent Causation and Life After Death
Olson - Personal Identity - Oxford Bibliographies Online Olson - Persons and Bodies - Response Olson - Review of 'Persons: Human and Divine' Olson - The Human Animal (Precis) Olson - The Human Animal: Reply to Baker
Olson - What Are We? Organisms Origins Plants Quantum Mechanics
Snowdon - The Self and Personal Identity Status: Thesis Dashboard (2021: October) Sterelny & Griffiths - From Sociobiology to Evolutionary Psychology Substance Thesis - Chapter 02 (What are We?)
Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It) Thesis - Chapter 07 (The Constitution View and Arguments for It) Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism) Thesis - Chapter 09 (Arguments against the Constitution View) Thesis - Chapter 11 (Resurrection)
Thesis - Method & Form Thinking Animal Argument Uploading Wiggins Williams - The Self and the Future
Works Read - Explanation Zimmerman - The Human Animal: Objections      

To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.




Summary of Note Links to this Page

Intuition Origins PID Note, Book & Paper Usage, 2 Status: Thesis Dashboard (2021: October), 2 Thesis - Chapter 02 (What are We?), 2
Thesis - Chapter 05 (Persistence and Time) Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism), 2 Thesis - Chapter 09 (Arguments against the Constitution View), 2 Thesis - Chapter 11 (Resurrection) Thesis - Introduction
Thinking Animal Argument Website Generator Documentation - Functors, 2, 3      

To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.




Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note

Author Title Medium Extra Links Read?
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 02 (What Are We?) Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 05 (Persistence and Time) Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism) Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 09 (Arguments against the Constitution View) Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 11 (Resurrection) Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Introduction & Chapter Outlines Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Intuition Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Origins Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Thinking Animal Argument Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes



References & Reading List

Author Title Medium Source Read?
Aeon Video - Organism Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 22 June 2021 Yes
Al-Khalili (Jim) & McFadden (Johnjoe) Life on the Edge: The Coming of Age of Quantum Biology Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Al-Khalili (Jim) & McFadden (Johnjoe) - Life on the Edge: The Coming of Age of Quantum Biology Yes
Anstotz (Christoph) Profoundly Intellectually Disabled Humans and the Great Apes: A Comparison Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Cavalieri & Singer - The Great Ape Project - Equality Beyond Humanity No
Ayers (Michael R.) Locke (Vol 2 - Ontology) Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 25%
Ayers (Michael R.) Neo-Lockean and Anti-Lockean Theories of Personal Identity in Analytic Philosophy Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Ayers - Locke (Vol. 2 - Ontology), 1991, Chapter 25, pp. 278-292 Yes
Baker (Lynne Rudder), Etc. E-Symposium on 'Persons & Bodies: A Constitution View' Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract Baker (Lynne Rudder), Etc. - E-Symposium on 'Persons & Bodies: A Constitution View' Yes
Blatti (Stephan) & Snowdon (Paul), Eds. Animalism: New Essays on Persons, Animals, and Identity Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Blatti (Stephan) & Snowdon (Paul), Eds. - Animalism: New Essays on Persons, Animals, and Identity 22%
Cairns-Smith (A.G.) Seven Clues to the Origin of Life - A Scientific Detective Story Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract Cairns-Smith (A.G.) - Seven Clues to the Origin of Life - A Scientific Detective Story Yes
Cavalieri (Paola) & Singer (Peter), Eds. The Great Ape Project - Equality Beyond Humanity Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Medium Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied Yes
Dainton (Barry) Self: Philosophy In Transit Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 10%
Dainton (Barry) Self: Philosophy In Transit: Prologue Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Dainton (Barry) - Self: Philosophy In Transit, Prologue Yes
JCS Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 01, Issue 2 (1994) Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 9%
Medina (John) The Clock of Ages - Why we Age; How we Age; Winding Back the Clock Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Medina (John) - The Clock of Ages - Why we Age; How we Age; Winding Back the Clock Yes
Moody (Todd C.) Conversations with Zombies Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract JCS - Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 01, Issue 2 (1994) Yes
Olson (Eric) Papers on Identity Boxes: Vol 13 (Olson) Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 24%
Olson (Eric) What are We? A Study of Personal Ontology Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Medium Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 68%
Olson (Eric) What Are We? Contents + References Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract What Are We? A Study in Personal Ontology - Contents + References (November 2007: Oxford University Press.) Yes
Olson (Eric) Why I Have No Hands Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract Theoria 61 (1995): 182-197 Yes
Pross (Addy) What is Life?: How Chemistry Becomes Biology Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Pross (Addy) - What is Life?: How Chemistry Becomes Biology Yes
Rachels (James) Created From Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Rachels (James) - Created From Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 02 (What Are We?) Paper - Referencing   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism) Paper - Referencing   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 09 (Arguments against the Constitution View) Paper - Referencing   Yes



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