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Personal Identity

Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)

(Text as at 28/09/2022 10:24:58)

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Abstract




Research Methodology


Chapter Introduction3
  1. There is effectively a 1-1-match between this Chapter and the Note Animalism – Objections4, though I imagine that this Chapter will be more focussed and less exploratory than that Note.
  2. The main objections to Animalism are those of incredulity to the Animalist claim that “matters of psychology are irrelevant to personal identity”, when most philosophers have thought – and still do think – that it’s constitutive of it. As I’ve said previously and often – this is to confuse What Matters to us with What we Are.
  3. Then we have the Brain Transplant Intuition – that we go with our brains. It is very difficult to resist this intuition – for reasons I’ve given under my Note on Forward Psychological Continuity, though Eric Olson insists that the Animalist must deny it as a brain isn’t an Organism.
  4. Then, there are awkward pathological cases where it’s not clear quite what the animalist should say. I’ve collected these under the Note on Dicephalus5.
  5. Finally, there’s the question of what’s going on during Pregnancy6, which Animalists have allegedly failed to address. Is the Fetus7 a part of the mother? If so, we’d have a case of Fission at birth. Traditionalists would deny this, so the problem ‘goes away’, but it needs to be considered carefully from the actual biology (covered in the previous Note and those on Zygotes8 and Embryos9).
  6. I’ve also included the topic of Abortion10 as part of this Chapter, though it’s maybe either misplaced, or not sufficiently relevant.



Note Hierarchy
  1. Animalism11. Excluded12
  2. Arguments against Animalism13
  3. Dicephalus14
  4. Pregnancy15
    1. Zygote16
    2. Embryos17
    3. Fetuses18
    4. Abortion19



Main Text

  1. Arguments against Animalism20
    1. A convenient starting-point for reviewing objections to Animalism is in +B2929B, reviewed in this Note21.
    2. The most obvious objection is to the initial implausibility of Animalism’s basic contention that – because I was once a fetus22 and may one day be a vegetable23psychological continuity24 or connectedness25 can have nothing to do with my persistence criteria26. Animalists can be accused of not taking persons sufficiently seriously27.
    3. Additionally, Animalists are said to have a “corpse problem28”. Because I am co-located with my “corpse-to-be”, the Animalist is hoist by his own petard, in that he has the analogue of the “fetus problem29” he alleges against the Constitution View30.
    4. A spin-off from the alleged irrelevancy of psychology for human identity is the need to deny the Brain Transplant31 intuition – that “I go where my brain goes”. The Transplant Intuition has been defended from an animalist perspective in "Madden (Rory) - Human Persistence".
    5. In "Olson (Eric) - Human Atoms", Olson mentions four “favourite objections”, though these strike me as being rather feeble, and I suspect them of being straw men:-
      1. If you were an animal, you would be identical with your body (or at any rate with some human body). But no human body can think or feel or act, as you can.
      2. Persons and animals have different persistence conditions: the organism that is your body could outlive you (if you lapsed into a persistent vegetative state), or you could outlive it (if your brain were transplanted and the rest of you destroyed). But a thing cannot outlive itself.
      3. Persons and animals have different criteria of synchronic identity: any human animal could be associated with two different persons at once (as cases of split personality). Thus, no person is an animal.
      4. These experiences – the ones I am having now – are essentially mine. But they are only contingently associated with any particular animal. Hence, I have a property that no animal has.
    6. The above paper is intended, however, to rebut the argument against animalism in "Lowe (E.J.) - Subjects of Experience", which have the unlikely consequence that we are “mereological atoms”.
    7. "Hudson (Hud) - I am Not an Animal!" argues against animalism via the “Elimination Argument”, which I’m yet to investigate and understand. "Bailey (Andrew M.) - The Elimination Argument" seeks to rebuff it.
    8. Elselijn Kingma has accused animalists of not taking Pregnancy32 as an important issue for Animalism. She thinks that the Fetus33 is a part of the mother. My view is that animals can share parts, as seems to be necessary for Conjoined Twins34, which are another supposed objection to animalism if it could be successfully argued that there is only one animal in these cases.
  2. Dicephalus35
    1. There are several related pathological conditions in which the number of animals36 and the number of individuals37 may fail to align. In order of increasing severity of the “condition”:-
      1. Conjoined Twins: Wikipedia: Conjoined Twins. Varies from a fairly loose conjunction of individuals, who may be separated, to more severe forms with shared organs and limbs. This article is of interest not least because it discusses the issue of fission38 versus fusion39, with the latter now the favourite suggestion.
      2. Craniopagus: Wikipedia: Craniopagus Twins. The babies are joined at the skull. Contrast the case where both twins are persons40 with the degenerate case Wikipedia: Craniopagus Parasiticus.
      3. Polycephaly: Wikipedia: Polycephaly. Animals or humans with apparently more than one head. Dicephaly is the limiting case. Usually an extreme version of conjunction. See, for example, BBC - Rare two-headed snake. Note that the description “two headed” seems more plausible in the case of reptiles than humans, given their presumed reduced mental experience. That said, given that dicephaly is – according to this article – a case of incomplete fission41 of an original single individual – this descriptive decision may be correct.
      4. Diprosopus: Wikipedia: Diprosopus. Animals, including humans, with two faces. There may be one or two brains, but only one skull. The important thing – and what differentiates the diprosopus from the dicephalus – is that there is much less duplication of body parts, so it is very much two brains sharing one body – though it can also be the relatively superficial – though tragic – case of one brain, one body and two faces.
    2. All these situations – and in particular the paradigm case of dicephalus, wherein it appears that we have a human animal42 with two heads – are often cited as a prima facie problems for Animalism43.
    3. The claim is that while we have multiple persons44, we only have a single animal45, so the animalist46 claim that persons are numerically identical to their organisms47 is false.
    4. Of course, the above claim is somewhat bald. Animalism48 – at least in the form expounded by Eric Olson – has no truck with psychology49 as necessary for our persistence50. While Olson often refers to “people” this is just shorthand for “some of us51”, rather than “persons”, the plural of person52.
    5. So, if the animalist claim is that we are human animals, then the question is – in the case of dicephalus and related conditions – how many of us53 are present, and how many human animals54 are present. Animalism55 need the numbers to be equal.
    6. The cases under consideration have the advantage over standard Thought Experiments56, in that they are real-life cases. What is actual must be possible, and a standard argument against TEs is thereby avoided, namely that some of them, at least – whatever our intuitions may say – may not in fact be possible57 because the TEs are under-described.
    7. That said, there’s still a temptation to push the boundaries, and to consider cases in this general area that are not actual, yet are not quite as science-fiction as the usual TEs58.
    8. Cases of dicephalus are fairly rare, and often one “twin” is degenerate (contrast Wikipedia: Craniopagus Parasiticus with Wikipedia: Dicephalic Parapagus Twins) so it’s not clear that we have two persons59 or two of “us60”. However, the case of the dicephalus twins61, Abigail and Brittany Hensel, where one body appears to be coordinated by two brains (see Wikipedia: Abigail and Brittany Hensel) shows that this is not necessarily the case. Here we definitely have two persons62, but maybe only one animal63. This is probably a real-life case of either incomplete fission64 or of fusion65.
    9. There are two issues with these cases:-
      1. How should they be best described?
      2. How should the animalist respond?
    10. Description:
      1. I need to research this further, but it seems to me that we have a sliding scale of pathological cases – from that of Siamese twins (who are often fairly loosely connected, and can often be surgically separated) to the much more extreme cases of diprosopus.
      2. I presume, also, that we can have both fission66 or of fusion67.
      3. In the case of (incomplete) fission68, the twins69 will be identical, as the situation is one where the twinning process has not completed.
      4. But (I imagine) we can also have a case of fusion70, where the twin-embryos71 – whether identical or fraternal – that were separate have subsequently partially fused. Note that if the trins are identical, we will have had a case of fission72 followed by fusion73. I don’t know whether there have been any actual cases of this.
    11. Response:
      1. The most likely response from the animalist74 is that the dicephalus is not a single organism75, but two organisms that share some body-parts.
      2. The force of the arguments in this kind of case depends on “relevant similarity” – if the dicephalus-case is sufficiently similar to the general case, it can be used to show things about the general case. But this claim can be rejected.
      3. In the case of diprosopus, it is more difficult to claim that there are two organisms76. Now – in practice – there are never two persons77 either (as in all the 30-odd cases recorded since 1860, the condition has proved quickly fatal, so there were no persons78 present). But this might not always be so. So, Lynne Rudder Baker might claim that the rudimentary persons were indeed persons79 – as there was a possibility that they would develop into robust persons. Failing that, it might be the case in the future there is a case where the diprosopus survives to develop personality80.
  3. Pregnancy81
    1. This topic sounds utterly tangential to my research interests, but I’ve included it because Elselijn Kingma complained – in "Kingma (Elselijn) - BUMP: Better Understanding the Metaphysics of Pregnancy (B1)" – that "Olson (Eric) - The Human Animal - Personal Identity Without Psychology" contained not even a footnote on the topic of pregnancy and the metaphysical issues it raises, in particular for animalism82.
    2. Following Kingma, the discussion will focus on the relationship throughout pregnancy between the mother and the fetus83. The key question is whether the fetus is a part of the mother or is a separate individual84 inside her. Additionally, we need to consider whether this status changes during pregnancy.
    3. I have to admit immediately that (contra Kingma) – my initial view is that the relationship is more “bun” (the “container model”) than “bump” (the “part model”), though this separation seems clearer as pregnancy progresses, following the implantation of the Zygote85 (prior to which there is clear separation).
    4. It looks like Kingma’s view is of pregnancy as a case of fusion86 followed by fission87.
    • Zygote88
      1. A Zygote (Wikipedia: Zygote) – is the immediate post-fertilisation product.
      2. In single-celled animals the zygote may constitute the entire animal.
      3. I once had “necessarily asexually-reproducing” here. The Wikipedia entry has it that such single-celled organisms reproduce asexually by mitosis. But if all such organisms arise in this way, in what way are they correctly described as “zygotes” which involves the “yoking together” of two distinct and differentiated gamete cells? Is it possible that some organisms reproduce both sexually and asexually? And – if so (as I believe) – is it true in this case?
      4. In humans, the zygote develops by division until it implants as the embryo89 (Wikipedia: Embryo). Until then it is called a proembryo (Wikipedia: Proembryo); a morula (Wikipedia: Morula) after 4 divisions – 16 blastomeres – and a blastocyst (Wikipedia: Blastocyst) by the 5th day. The implanted embryo is called a fetus (Wikipedia: Fetus) after 11 weeks.
      5. In the philosophy of personal identity, the question arises when the human being90 or the human person91 arises. Additionally – and relatedly – was I92 ever a zygote (or an embryo93, or a fetus94).
      6. Most philosophers agree that a zygote isn’t a person95, because it does not possess the appropriate psychological96 attributes.
      7. Many philosophers contend that a human zygote isn’t a human being97 either – in that it hasn’t the appropriate set of organs.
      8. In addition, the question whether I was ever a zygote is complicated by two considerations:-
        1. Twinning98: is a special case of fission99. Why should the zygote be numerically identical to one – rather than the other – of a pair of monozygotic twins? Modal100 considerations apply if I am in fact not a monozygotic twin.
        2. Difference over the definition – or maybe ontological101 category – of “person102”. Some philosophers insist that an individual103 can be a person104 on account of its expected future capacities105, or actual or once anticipated past capacities, irrespective of its present capacities.
    • Embryos106
      1. In humans, the immediate post-fertilization product – the zygote107 – develops by division until it implants as the embryo (Wikipedia: Embryo). It is called a fetus (Wikipedia: Fetus) after 11 weeks.
      2. In the philosophy of personal identity, the question arises when the human being108 or the human person109 arises. Additionally – and relatedly – was I ever an embryo?
      3. Most philosophers agree that an embryo isn’t a person110, because it does not possess the appropriate psychological111 attributes112.
      4. Many philosophers contend that a human embryo isn’t a human being113 either – in that it hasn’t the appropriate set of organs.
      5. In addition, the question whether I was ever an embryo is complicated by differences over the definition – or maybe ontological category – of “person114”, as was noted in the discussion of Zygote115.
    • Fetuses116
      1. In humans, the implanted embryo (Wikipedia: Embryo) is called a fetus (Wikipedia: Fetus) after 11 weeks which remains the favoured term of reference until the individual117’s birth – whether full-term or induced – when it is referred to as a neonate (or a baby!). Referring to the fetus as a “baby” is tendentious but common in the pro-life movement.
      2. Fetuses feature a lot in the philosophy of personal identity. Are they persons118, or merely potential persons, given that they probably fail the conditions for personhood119?
      3. Was I120 ever a fetus? At least, was I an early-term fetus?
      4. This latter question is addressed by animalists121 – who think that we were indeed fetuses – as a poser for supporters of the psychological view122 (or constitution view123) of personal identity (since fetuses lack psychological connectedness124 to adult persons, and even lack psychological continuity125 to them on the presumption that early-term fetuses lack all psychological experience).
      5. But, it’s also alleged as a problem for animalism126, or at least a matter that has not been properly addressed by them. What was the relation of the fetus to its mother. Was the mother merely a container, or was the fetus a proper part127 of the mother, who thereby fissioned128 on the baby’s birth? See Elselijn Kingma and "Finn (Suki) - Bun or bump?".
      6. It strikes me that the “fission at birth” view is too implausible – the fetus – especially near term – certainly looks like an independent being that’s being hosted on life support by the mother. So, maybe we can come to a compromise understanding whereby the fissioning129 happens earlier, though the separation would clearly be more vague130 than the cutting of the umbilical cord.
    • Abortion131
      1. The morality of abortion is a large and important issue, but is not my major concern except insofar as it impinges on the topic of Personal Identity.
      2. Our views on Personal Identity will have an impact on our views of the morality of abortion, though not in any straightforward manner.
      3. More importantly – and regrettably so in my opinion – views on the morality of abortion can have an impact on one’s views of personal identity. This is the wrong way round, and violates the fact / value distinction. While ethical, political or religious132 views might influence our preference for certain metaphysical views, they should not constrain our actual beliefs, which should be responses to how things are, and to which our other beliefs should conform, however disappointing that might be.
        1. This remark assumes that there is a “way things are” that is independent of the desires and motivations of human beings. This is denied by – for instance – Yuval Noah Harari; but see – for a robust realist view – "Blackburn (Simon) - Truth: A Guide for the Perplexed".
        2. I do not wish to deny that our ethical, political and religious views can be responses to how things are, just that they were often responses to how things seemed to us – or to people we respected – at formative times of our lives, and then got entrenched and we remain impervious to evidence to the contrary.
      4. I’ll leave further discussion for now. Enough to say that I’ll not intend to wade in too far into this moral morass, though I will need to review the foundational papers on the moral implications of abortion.
      5. The note on Pregnancy133 raises questions of what (to put it rather positively) abortion actually achieves. According to the standard “container model”, abortion kills a distinct, though temporarily dependent, being. However, according to the “parthood model”, abortion only removes a part of the whole (removing the so-called “foster” from the “gravida”: see "Kingma (Elselijn) - Were You Part of Your Mother?").



Concluding Remarks
  1. Having now discussed the arguments against Animalism, we now in our next Chapter134 turn to the arguments against the Constitution View.
  2. This is work in progress135.


Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed136
  1. This section attempts to derive the readings lists automatically from those of the underlying Notes, but removing duplicated references. The list is divided into:-
  2. I’ve not been overly careful to segregate the reading-list of this Chapter from that of Chapter 6139. I will address the segregation in due course. There will, in any case, be some overlap.
  3. Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters.



Works on this topic that I’ve actually read140, include the following:-
  1. Arguments against Animalism141
  2. Dicephalus151
  3. Pregnancy
    1. Pregnancy153
    2. Zygote154
    3. Embryos155
    4. Fetuses156
    5. Abortion160


A further reading list might start with:-
  1. Arguments against Animalism163
  2. Dicephalus166
  3. Pregnancy
    1. Pregnancy168
    2. Zygote171
    3. Embryos172
    4. Fetuses174
    5. Abortion175



In-Page Footnotes:

Footnote 3: Footnote 12: Footnote 136: Footnote 159: Footnote 161: Footnote 162: Footnote 169: Footnote 170: Footnote 173: See, in particular, Footnote 176: Footnote 177: Footnote 178:


Table of the Previous 12 Versions of this Note: (of 13)

Date Length Title
11/05/2022 18:59:02 37015 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
11/04/2022 00:01:26 15713 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
01/10/2021 13:17:46 15009 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
29/03/2021 19:23:31 8093 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
22/03/2021 00:28:48 4462 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
08/02/2021 16:13:26 4021 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
18/04/2019 18:18:43 4005 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
05/04/2016 23:19:41 3764 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
04/04/2015 00:17:17 3494 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
13/01/2015 19:07:41 3430 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
06/11/2014 10:13:26 3407 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)
02/10/2014 17:12:29 3290 Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism)



Note last updated Reading List for this Topic Parent Topic
28/09/2022 10:24:58 None available Thesis - Introduction


Summary of Notes Referenced by This Note

Abortion Animalism Animalism - Objections Animals Awaiting Attention (Personal Identity)
Baker - The Coherence Of the Constitution View of Human Persons Baker - The Human Animal: Big-Tent Metaphysics Baker - The Human Animal: Response to Olson Baker - What Am I? Brain Death
Brain Transplants Connectedness vs Continuity Constitution View Constitution View - Objections Corpses
Counting Persons Dicephalus Embryo Fetuses Fission
Fusion Human Animals Human Beings Human Persons I
Individual Jen_080317 (Baker) Markosian - The Human Animal: Three Problems for Olson Mereology Modality
Noonan - Persons and Bodies - Response Olson - The Human Animal Abstracta Symposium Olson - The Human Animal: Reply to Baker Ontology Organisms
Persistence Persistence Criteria Persistent Vegetative State Person Personality
Pregnancy Properties Psychological Continuity Psychological View Psychology
Religion Snowdon - The Self and Personal Identity Status: Thesis Dashboard (2022: November) Taking Persons Seriously Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It)
Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism) Thesis - Chapter 09 (Arguments against the Constitution View) Thesis - Method & Form Thought Experiments Twinning
Vagueness What are We? Works Read - Explanation Zimmerman - The Human Animal: Objections Zygote

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Summary of Notes Citing This Note

Life After Death Origins PID Note, Book & Paper Usage, 2 Status: Thesis Dashboard (2022: November), 2 Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It), 2
Thesis - Chapter 07 (The Constitution View and Arguments for It) Thesis - Chapter 10 (Thought Experiments) Thesis - Chapter 11 (Resurrection) Thesis - Introduction Thinking Animal Argument
Website Generator Documentation - Functors, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10        

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Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note

Author Title Medium Extra Links Read?
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It) Paper Medium Quality Abstract 2 Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 07 (The Constitution View and Arguments for It) Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 10 (Thought Experiments) Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 11 (Resurrection) Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Introduction & Chapter Outlines Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Life After Death Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Origins Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Thinking Animal Argument Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes



References & Reading List

Author Title Medium Source Read?
Anscombe (G.E.M.) Were You a Zygote? Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Anscombe (G.E.M) - Human Life, Action and Ethics Yes
Anscombe (G.E.M.), Geach (Mary), Gormally (Luke), Eds. Human Life, Action and Ethics Book - Cited Anscombe (G.E.M.), Geach (Mary), Gormally (Luke), Eds. - Human Life, Action and Ethics 10%
Bailey (Andrew M.) The Elimination Argument Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Philosophical Studies 168 (2014): 475-482 56%
Baird (Robert M.) & Rosenbaum (Stuart E.), Eds. The Ethics of Abortion: Pro-Life Vs. Pro-Choice Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract Baird (Robert M.) & Rosenbaum (Stuart E.), Eds. - The Ethics of Abortion: Pro-Life Vs. Pro-Choice 2%
Baker (Lynne Rudder) Big-Tent Metaphysics Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Abstracta Special Issue I – 2008 (Brazil) Yes
Baker (Lynne Rudder) Response to Eric Olson Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Abstracta Special Issue I – 2008 (Brazil) Yes
Baker (Lynne Rudder) Review of 'What Are We? A Study in Personal Ontology' by Eric T. Olson Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Mind, 117:1120-1122, 2008 Yes
Baker (Lynne Rudder) When Do Persons Begin and End? Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Distinguished Faculty Lecture, December 5, 2005 Yes
Baker (Lynne Rudder), Etc. E-Symposium on 'Persons & Bodies: A Constitution View' Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied Yes
Belshaw (Christopher) My Beginnings Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract The Monist, Vol. 89, No. 3, Coming into Being and Passing Away (July 2006), pp. 371-389 Yes
Bermudez (Jose Luis), Marcel (Anthony) & Eilan (Naomi), Eds. The Body and the Self Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Medium Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 4%
Blackburn (Simon) Truth: A Guide for the Perplexed Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Blackburn (Simon) - Truth: A Guide for the Perplexed Yes
Blatti (Stephan) Animalism (SEP) Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, 2014 Yes
Blatti (Stephan) Animalism and its Implications Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract OU Website (now deleted) Yes
Blatti (Stephan) Animalism, Dicephalus, and Borderline Cases Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Philosophical Psychology 20 (2007): 595–608 Yes
Blatti (Stephan) & Snowdon (Paul), Eds. Animalism: New Essays on Persons, Animals, and Identity Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Medium Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 22%
Blatti (Stephan), Ed. The Lives of Human Animals Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract The Southern Journal of Philosophy Volume 52, Spindel Supplement, 2014 Yes
Boonin (David) A Defense of Abortion Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Boonin (David) - A Defense of Abortion 1%
Bradley (Ben), Feldman (Fred) & Johansson (Jens) The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 7%
Braine (David) The Human Person: Animal and Spirit Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Braine (David) - The Human Person: Animal and Spirit 1%
Brody (Baruch) Abortion and the Sanctity of Human Life : a Philosophical View Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract Brody (Baruch) - Abortion and the Sanctity of Human Life : a Philosophical View 4%
Brody (Baruch) Abortion and the Sanctity of Human Life: Introduction Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Brody - Abortion and the Sanctity of Human Life : a Philosophical View, 1975, Introduction Yes
Buchanan (Rachael) The battle to separate Safa and Marwa Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract BBC Website, July 2019 Yes
Cameron (Nigel M. de S.) Embryos and Ethics: The Warnock Report in Debate Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Cameron (Nigel M. de S.) - Embryos and Ethics: The Warnock Report in Debate No
Campbell (Scott) Can You Survive a Brain-Zap Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Theoria, 2004; 70(1): 22-27 Yes
Campbell (Tim) & McMahan (Jeff) Animalism and the Varieties of Conjoined Twinning Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Blatti & Snowdon - Animalism: New Essays on Persons, Animals, and Identity, 2016: Part III, Chapter 11, pp. 229-252 40%
Carter (William) Death and Bodily Transfiguration Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract Mind, 1984, 412-418 Yes
CIBA Foundation Human Embryo Research: Yes or No? Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract CIBA Foundation - Human Embryo Research: Yes or No? No
Cockburn (David), Ed. Human Beings Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 7%
Finn (Suki) Bun or bump? Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract Aeon, 27 July, 2017 Yes
Ford (Norman) When Did I Begin: Conception of the Human Individual in History, Philosophy and Science Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Ford (Norman) - When Did I Begin: Conception of the Human Individual in History, Philosophy and Science 3%
Forrester (Mary) Persons, Animals, and Fetuses: An Essay in Practical Ethics Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Forrester (Mary) - Persons, Animals, and Fetuses: An Essay in Practical Ethics 4%
Francescotti (Robert) Fetuses, corpses and the psychological approach to personal identity Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract Philosophical Explorations, Mar2005, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p69-81, 13p Yes
Garrett (Brian) Animalism and Reductionism Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Garrett - Personal Identity and Self-consciousness, 1998, Chapter 2 Yes
Garrett (Brian) Personal Identity and Self-consciousness Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Medium Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied Yes
Garrett (Brian) Some Thoughts on Animalism Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract Petrus - On Human Persons, 2003 Yes
Glover (Jonathan) Causing Death and Saving Lives Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Glover (Jonathan) - Causing Death and Saving Lives Yes
Grobstein (Clifford) Science and the Unborn: Choosing Human Futures Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract Grobstein (Clifford) - Science and the Unborn: Choosing Human Futures 2%
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: C-F Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 51%
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: G-K Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 31%
Hershenov (David) Countering the Appeal of the Psychological Approach to Personal Identity Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Philosophy - 79, Jul2004, Issue 309, p447-474, 28p; Yes
Hershenov (David) Do Dead Bodies Pose a Problem for Biological Approaches to Personal Identity Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Mind, 114, Number 453, 1 January 2005, pp. 31-59(29). Yes
Horn (Claire) The history of the incubator makes a sideshow of mothering Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 2020 Yes
Hudson (Hud) I am Not an Animal! Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Van Inwagen (Peter) & Zimmerman (Dean) - Persons: Human and Divine 11%
Isaac (Sasha) Is artificial-womb technology a tool for women’s liberation? Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract Aeon, 18 December, 2019 Yes
Kazez (Jean) The Philosophical Parent: Asking the Hard Questions About Having and Raising Children Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Kazez (Jean) - The Philosophical Parent: Asking the Hard Questions About Having and Raising Children Yes
Kazez (Jean) The Philosophical Parent: Asking the Hard Questions About Having and Raising Children Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Kazez (Jean) - The Philosophical Parent: Asking the Hard Questions About Having and Raising Children Yes
Kenyon (Edwin) The Dilemma of Abortion Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Kenyon (Edwin) - The Dilemma of Abortion No
Kingma (Elselijn) BUMP: Better Understanding the Metaphysics of Pregnancy (B1) Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Southampton University Website Yes
Kingma (Elselijn) Lady Parts: The Metaphysics of Pregnancy Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplements, Volume 82 (Metaphysics) - July 2018, pp. 165-187 Yes
Kingma (Elselijn) Were You Part of Your Mother? Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Mind, Volume 128, Issue 511, July 2019, Pages 609–646 Yes
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