<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /> <title>Note: Personal Identity - Non-Human Persons (Theo Todman's Web Page)</title> </head><body> <a name="Top"></a> <h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Notes Pages</h1><hr><h2>Personal Identity</h2><h3>Non-Human Persons</h3><p class = "Centered">(Text as at 07/03/2018 22:29:17)<br><br>(For earlier versions of this Note, <a href="#TableOfPreviousVersions">see the table at the end</a>)</p><hr> <P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1164_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1164_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>Other notes cover <a name="1"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_9.htm">Persons</A><SUP>2</SUP> and <a name="2"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_75.htm">Human Persons</A><SUP>3</SUP>, </li><li>Amongst philosophers, if not amongst the general populace, it is usually take for granted that there can be persons who are not <a name="3"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_74.htm">human beings</A><SUP>4</SUP>. The usual candidates are:- <ol type="i"><li>The higher <a name="4"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_30.htm">Non-human Animals</A><SUP>5</SUP>, especially the Great Apes, </li><li>Aliens,</li><li>Angels,</li><li>God,</li><li><a name="5"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_51.htm">Androids</A><SUP>6</SUP> (or appropriately-configured Robots), </li><li><a name="6"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_66.htm">Cyborgs</A><SUP>7</SUP>, at least those with <a name="7"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_47.htm">silicon</A><SUP>8</SUP> (or other inorganic) <a name="8"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_55.htm">brains</A><SUP>9</SUP> (those with human brains will, naturally, be <u>human</u> persons. </li><li>Computers  or computer programs  of appropriate structure and complexity. </li></ol></li><li>See also <a name="9"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_9/Notes_939.htm">Transhumanism</A><SUP>10</SUP>. </li><li>Angels and aliens are discussed in <a name="13"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4191.htm">Wiggins (David) - Reply to Snowdon (Persons and Personal Identity)</A>" and the claim is that insofar as we can conceptualise them, they are <a name="10"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_30.htm">animals</A><SUP>11</SUP>. So they aren t counter-examples to the supposition that all persons are animals (though this doesn t rule out non-human animals being persons). </li><li>Wiggins also discusses robot-persons. If, in order to satisfy the conditions of personhood, these end up as molecule-by-molecule <a name="11"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_58.htm">clones</A><SUP>12</SUP> of animals, these are animals also.</li><li>This Note will discuss whether these candidates can be persons, and what  if they can  this fact tells us about what persons are. </li><li>In the process, it may be necessary to create Notes for those candidates that do not currently have them. </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1164_13">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1164_13"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1164_14">include</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1164_14"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="14"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4191.htm">Wiggins (David) - Reply to Snowdon (Persons and Personal Identity)</A>"</li></ol></li><li>There is currently no categorised reading-list associated with this Note. A preliminary reading list would include:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="15"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6376.htm">Francione (Gary) - Animals as Persons: Essays on the Abolition of Animal Exploitation</A>", Francione</li><li><a name="16"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2666.htm">Fetzer (James) - The Evolution of Intelligence: Are Humans the Only Animals with Minds?</A>", Fetzer</li><li><a name="17"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3633.htm">Hurley (Susan) & Nudds (Matthew) - Rational Animals?</A>", Hurley&Nudds</li><li><a name="18"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1397.htm">Leiber (Justin) - Can Animals and Machines Be Persons? : A Dialogue</A>", Leiber</li><li><a name="19"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4309.htm">Savage-Rumbaugh (E.Sue) & Lewin (Roger) - Kanzi: Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind</A>", Savage-Rumbaugh</li><li><a name="20"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4136.htm">Kurzweil (Ray) - The Age of Spiritual Machines</A>", Kurzweil</li><li><a name="21"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1349.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Persons: A Study of Possible Moral Agents in the Universe</A>", Puccetti</li><li><a name="22"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2928.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) & Zimmerman (Dean) - Persons: Human and Divine</A>", Van Inwagen </li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="12"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_7/Notes_737.htm">place-holder</A><SUP>15</SUP>. </li></ul></P> <FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><HR><h3 class = "Left">In-Page Footnotes:</h3><a name="On-Page_Link_1164_1"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_1164_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_1164_13"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_1164_13"><B>Footnote 13</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_1164_14"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_1164_14"><B>Footnote 14</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </center><br> <br><hr><h3 class = "Left">Printable Versions:</h3> <UL><li>Follow (<A Href="Notes_Print/NotesPrint_1164_0_P_R.htm" TARGET = "_top">this link</A>) for level 0 (with reading list), and </li><li>Follow (<A Href="Notes_Print/NotesPrint_1164_0_P.htm" TARGET = "_top">this link</A>) for level 0.</li></UL> <a name="TableOfPreviousVersions"></a><BR><HR><h3 class= "Left">Previous Version of this Note:</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=700> <TR><TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeCenter"><strong>Date</strong></TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeRight"><strong>Length</strong></TD> <TD WIDTH="70%" class = "BridgeLeft"><strong>Title</strong></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">05/04/2016 23:19:41</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">1638</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_1164_42465972.htm">Non-Human Persons</A></TD></TR> </TABLE> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950><TR> <TH WIDTH="25%">Note last updated</TH> <TH WIDTH="50%">Reading List for this Topic</TH> <TH WIDTH="25%">Parent Topic</TH></TR> <TR><TD WIDTH="25%">07/03/2018 22:29:17</TD> <TD WIDTH="50%">None available</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%"><A href ="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_9.htm">Person</A></TD></TR> </TABLE></center> <hr><h3>Summary of Note Links from this Page</h3> <CENTER> <TABLE Class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_51.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Androids</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_30.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Animals</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_737.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Awaiting Attention (Personal Identity)</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_55.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Brain</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_58.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Clones</span></A></TD> </TR> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_66.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Cyborgs</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_74.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Human Beings</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_75.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Human Persons</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#b3c6ff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_9.htm"><span title="Plug Note - Reading List TBA">Person</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#b3c6ff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_47.htm"><span title="Plug Note - Reading List TBA">Siliconisation</span></A></TD> </TR> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_939.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Transhumanism</span></A></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P class = "Centered">To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.</P> <BR><HR><BR><h3>Summary of Note Links to this Page</h3> <CENTER> <TABLE Class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_75.htm#3"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Human Persons</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#b3ffb3" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1015.htm#9"><span title="High Quality">Thesis - Chapter 03 (What is a Person?)</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_939.htm#7"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Transhumanism</span></A></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P class = "Centered">To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.</P> <br><hr><br><CENTER> <h3>Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=950> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Author</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Title</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Medium</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Extra Links</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"><B><B>Read?</B></B></TD> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Todman (Theo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">Thesis - Human Persons</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17826.htm#4">Paper</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title="Medium Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Todman (Theo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">Thesis - Non-Human Persons</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21678.htm#1">Paper</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title="Medium Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Todman (Theo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">Thesis - Transhumanism</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17901.htm#8">Paper</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title="Medium Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> </TABLE></center> <CENTER> <br><hr><br><h3>References & Reading List</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=950> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Author</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Title</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Medium</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Source</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"><B>Read?</B></TD> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Fetzer (James)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">The Evolution of Intelligence: Are Humans the Only Animals with Minds?</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2666.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png" alt="Medium Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Fetzer (James) - The Evolution of Intelligence: Are Humans the Only Animals with Minds?</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 3%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Francione (Gary)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Animals as Persons: Essays on the Abolition of Animal Exploitation</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6376.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../cancel.png" alt="Low Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Francione (Gary) - Animals as Persons: Essays on the Abolition of Animal Exploitation</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 11%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Hurley (Susan) & Nudds (Matthew)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Rational Animals?</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3633.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../cancel.png" alt="Low Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Hurley (Susan) & Nudds (Matthew) - Rational Animals?</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 6%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Kurzweil (Ray)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">The Age of Spiritual Machines</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4136.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png" alt="Medium Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Kurzweil (Ray) - The Age of Spiritual Machines</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Leiber (Justin)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Can Animals and Machines Be Persons? : A Dialogue</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1397.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../cancel.png" alt="Low Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Leiber (Justin) - Can Animals and Machines Be Persons? : A Dialogue</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Lovibond (Sabina) & Williams (S.G.)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Identity, Truth & Value: Essays for David Wiggins</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_38.htm">Book - Cited (via Paper Cited)</A> <img src="../../accept.png" alt="High Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Bibliographical details to be supplied</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 11%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Puccetti (Roland)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Persons: A Study of Possible Moral Agents in the Universe</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1349.htm">Book - Cited</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Puccetti (Roland) - Persons: A Study of Possible Moral Agents in the Universe</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 3%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Savage-Rumbaugh (E.Sue) & Lewin (Roger)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Kanzi: Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4309.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png" alt="Medium Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Savage-Rumbaugh (E.Sue) & Lewin (Roger) - Kanzi: Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 6%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Van Inwagen (Peter) & Zimmerman (Dean)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Persons: Human and Divine</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2928.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png" alt="Medium Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Van Inwagen (Peter) & Zimmerman (Dean) - Persons: Human and Divine</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 5%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Wiggins (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Reply to Snowdon (Persons and Personal Identity)</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4191.htm">Paper - Cited</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Lovibond & Williams - Identity, Truth & Value: Essays for David Wiggins, 1996</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <a name="ColourConventions"></a><br><hr><br><h3 class = "Left">Text Colour Conventions</h3><OL TYPE="1"><li><FONT COLOR = "000000">Black</FONT>: Printable Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><li><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li></OL><BR> <center><BR><HR><BR><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950><TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD><TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD><TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T18:34" pubdate>02/08/2018 18:34:51</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR><TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD><TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD><TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD></TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR></BODY></HTML>