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Personal Identity

Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)

(Work In Progress: output at 01/06/2024 05:33:47)

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Chapter Contents

  1. Abstract1
  2. Methodology2
  3. Introduction3
  4. Note Hierarchy4
  5. Main Text5
  6. Concluding Remarks6
  7. Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed7
  8. Works Read8
  9. Further Reading9
  10. References & Reading List


Abstract
  1. This Chapter provides a motivating statement for the study of the particular path through the topic of Personal Identity I intend to pursue and a brief historical survey of the subject to situate my particular stance.
  2. Why should we care about the topic of Personal Identity? In one sense, this question of “why” hardly needs answering, as it’s just about the most important question to be posed by a reflective (if maybe self-obsessed) person.
  3. Historically, answers to the question of what Personal Identity consists in have provided – or so Locke hoped – grounds for the possibility of life after death.
  4. Yet, this second question is difficult, and has had many attempted solutions offered. While some philosophers think there is no problem left to solve, there is no consensus as to the solution. In any case, before we can answer this question we need to clarify it and decide what sort of beings we persons are.
  5. My favourite paradigm – in the sense of the one I think most likely to be correct, rather than necessary the one I’d like to be correct – is Animalism10. This is the claim that we are human animals and that consequently death is the end of us. This sensible – if to many disappointing – view is only supported by around 17% of philosophers, according to a 2009 poll11 with about twice as many supporting some form of psychological view12.
  6. In one sense it is just obvious that we are – in some sense of that weasel word “are” – human animals. But then the problem cases kick in – whether actual real-life cases or thought experiments that may never be real-life possibilities.
  7. About 36% of the respondents in the aforementioned survey though we could survive teletransportation – though 31% thought that the result would be death and Transhumanists13 think we can be uploaded14 to computers, which makes no sense if we are animals.
  8. So, how did we get to this lack of consensus?



Research Methodology


Chapter Introduction20
  1. Unless kept in check, this chapter could cover more ground than any number of PhD Theses. Its purpose is to prepare the ground – and clear the way – for detailed investigation of the dispute between Animalism and the Constitution View, as well as to demonstrate that I do – at least to some degree – understand more of the wider question than that pursued in detail later.
  2. There are many fine introductory books – and General Surveys21 – on the topic of Personal Identity, and I don’t intend to compete with them here. What I want to do is situate what I want to say in its historical context. I don’t intend to supply this section with a detailed scholarly apparatus.
  3. Of course, the modern discussion of Personal Identity has been a series of footnotes to Locke22, so it’s important to demonstrate an understanding of just what Locke thought on the subject, what positive insights he had, and how – in my view – he led us all astray on the subject. One positive aspect of his though is to stress that the topic is a Forensic23 one; it has ethical implications and motivations.
  4. As noted, historically – and indeed presently – the majority of philosophers (and probably most people) hold to some form of Psychological View24 of personal identity. So, I need to demonstrate an understanding of what this view – or views – is or are. I have a number of Notes on the topic other than the one just cited. The one on Psychology25 is something of a general repository, but should aim to describe just what it is that is deemed so important to us that it is (allegedly) constitutive of what we are. That on the Psychological Criterion26 is supposed to explain how this criterion of identity is intended to work.
  5. We need to analyse Psychological Continuity27 in general, but the backward form falls prey to reduplication objections. But, it’s difficult to gainsay the psychological view in the face of experiential Forward Psychological Continuity28. If it seems to me that I continue to exist during some adventure during which I’m continually conscious, it would be difficult to deny that I do; or so it seems to me.
  6. There’s a major sub-plot of the psychological view to do with Memory29, which – while admitted not to be the only psychological element of importance – has been beset with problems since Locke’s days, having been refined into quasi-memory30 to avoid problems with the logic of identity. David Lewis’s Methuselah31 thought-experiment also stresses the memory-criterion.
  7. Finally, there’s the question of dreamless Sleep32. Just what happens to the persistence of the person during this period, in the absence of either the Body or the Organism defining identity?
  8. In this section, I should at least briefly discuss the positions of some of the major philosophers who have held neo-Lockean views (or other views not discussed later in this thesis). This would be an endless task, and the ones chosen – Descartes33, Kant34, Leibniz35, David Lewis36, Parfit37 and Wittgenstein38 – are those that happen to have come up.



Note Hierarchy
  1. General Surveys39
  2. Locke40
    1. Forensic Property41
  3. The Psychological View
    1. Psychological View42
    2. Psychology43
    3. Psychological Criterion44
    4. Memory47
    5. Sleep50
  4. Other Philosophers of Note
    1. Descartes51
    2. Kant52
    3. Leibniz53
    4. Lewis54
    5. Parfit55
    6. Wittgenstein56
See also:-
  1. My Current Stance57



Main Text: Brief historical survey of the topic of Personal Identity
  1. General Surveys58
    1. There are many fine introductory books on this topic, and I don’t intend to compete with them here. What I want to do is situate what I want to say in its historical context. I don’t intend to supply this section with a detailed scholarly apparatus.
    2. Naturally, there are numerous General Surveys59 that treat of Personal Identity. The majority of these hail from the last century and reflect the concerns of the time, which was basically the dispute between holders of the majority position – the Psychological View60 and those supportive of the Body Criterion61. The latter view, which will be discussed in a the next Chapter, has largely been replaced by the Biological Criterion62 (Animalism63), though the Brain Criterion64 is still somewhat popular in preserving the advantages of both the PV and the Body Criterion.
  2. Locke65
    1. Locke was responsible for setting the terms of engagement for the modern discussion of Personal Identity.
    2. It was Locke who first – or at least most famously – made the distinction between the Person66 and the ‘Man’.
    3. The ‘Man’ is these days variously cashed out as the Human Being67 or Human Animal68, though for much of the time since Locke the division has been between the Mind69 (thought of as what the person really is) and the Body70.
    4. It is occasionally claimed that philosophers prefer the mind to the body, and are naturally inclined to take the “mental” side in these debates. While that may be true, the consciousness envisaged is not that of philosophical contemplation, but the everyday sort enjoyed by cobblers and the rest of us. It includes appreciation of all things bodily, and is the ground of everything that matters71 to us.
    5. Locke was correct in saying that the term Person72 is a forensic concept73; that is, it has to do with ethical matters. He was also right to connect the topic to the then concern with Resurrection74.
    6. However, while he’s correct to distinguish the person from the “man”, I believe him to be wrong in supposing that the “person” is separable from the “man”.
    7. Rather, we75 are human beings (human animals76) who happen to have the property77 of being persons, a property that cannot be transferred to some other entity.
    8. For Locke, the Person78 is individuated by a locus of consciousness and extends as far at that consciousness79 extends. No doubt for most of the time since Locke, this locus of consciousness was thought of as an immaterial Soul80, which makes the thought experiments81 – from Locke’s Prince and Cobbler onwards – easier to credit, though for some time this has been no longer an option for most philosophers.
    9. All I otherwise have to say on Locke is covered by my final-year BA essay What, if anything, is wrong with Locke’s account of personal identity?82.
  3. Forensic Property83
    1. Locke84’s recognition that there are important Forensic – that is, moral – aspects to the topic of Personal Identity is as true today as in his own day, even though we might not share his primary concern in justifying the importance of identifying the resurrected85 with the pre-mortem individuals.
    2. Animalism86 may say that psychology has nothing to do with the metaphysics of our identity – in that we continue on as the same animal – if we do – irrespective of our psychological states and history. While this may be true, most of what matters87 to us in our Survival88 is psychological, and ethical, and our concerns about praise and blame, and especially punishment, remain.
    3. Also, forensic matters are central to the Concept89 of Person90, even if we are91 not – most fundamentally – persons, and Person is an honorific rather than a Substance92 term.
    4. Forensic matters are central to discussions as to whether – and if so why – all human beings93 are persons for the entirety of their lives.
    5. Finally, Animalism is especially well-motivated in considering – for forensic reasons – whether certain Non-Human Animals94 are suitable for admission to the class of Person, maybe of reduced degree95.
  4. Psychology & The Psychological View
    1. Introduction
      1. In the arguments between those supporting psychological continuity96 and connectedness97, and those preferring bodily continuity98, the question what we are99 often seems to have been forgotten. Maybe it has often been assumed that Person100 is a substance101-concept?
      2. This is still assumed by those who think that Persons – whether as Souls102 or reified First-Person Perspectives103 – are separable from the infrastructure that – in normal circumstances – “grounds” them.
      3. But, for most people these days it is – or ought to be – obvious that the default position is that “we” are human animals, and that the consequences that stem from this have to be lived with.
      4. But it is difficult not to be – and maybe correct to be – dissatisfied with this. We may end up with a “Hybrid104” account: we are animals, but even so, we “go where our psychology goes”. In particular, the brain transplant105 intuition is difficult to escape from.
      5. If this is so, the answers to our questions will rest on just where our “psychology” does – or can (in the widest sense) – “go”.
      6. Transhumanists106 imagine all sorts of scenarios whereby “we” are uploaded107 to a computer. Even were this practical it assumes that “we” are our mental contents rather than the things that enjoy these contents. This strikes me as continuing a mistaken route in the history of philosophy taken by supporters of the psychological view108, and continued by Parfit109 and his supporters.
    2. The Psychological View110
      1. The Psychological View – hereafter the PV – is the view, originating with Locke111, that the matter of primary importance in matters of personal identity is psychological continuity112 (or maybe of psychological connectedness113). Indeed, this view – which was dominant until fairly recently (and maybe still is, given the Bourget & Chalmers survey) – is stronger, in saying that psychological continuity and connectedness are constitutive of Personal Identity.
      2. No-one denies that our psychology114 is important to us115, but making it constitutive of our identity has led to much confusion and paradox.
      3. I think, however, that Elselijn Kingma is incorrect in diagnosing the popularity of the PV as due to philosophers being intellectuals.
      4. In particular it encourages the idea that the same human being116 may not be the same person117 throughout its life118, or that the same person may “hop” from one human being to another as has been considered in many TEs119.
      5. I wish to deny both these possibilities.
    3. Psychology120
      1. If we adopt the Psychological View121 of Personal Identity – which I don’t – then it is psychological factors that are important in determining our persistence criteria122.
      2. However, while these factors do matter123 to the survivor124, they don’t matter in the binary sense of “have I survived or not” unless we take the Psychological View125 and make such factors constitutive of personal identity. As an animalist126, I do not.
      3. Supporters of the PV127 - or even the CV128 - tend to stress the discontinuity between the psychologies of human and non-human animals129. Animalists130 tend to focus on similarities, or continuities, as an evolutionary argument for animalism131.
      4. Because Psychology is so important to us, it is important to consider just what is important in it, and how it is grounded in our brains132 and bodies133. The idea of the Embodied Mind134 is very important when we consider phantastical ideas such as Uploading135.
      5. We must consider not just memory136 but other psychological capacities, including character.
    4. Psychological Criterion137
      1. The Psychological Criterion is the use of psychological facts as a criterion of personal identity, as definitive of whether we persist or not. So (on this view) if we want to know whether a person survives or not, it’s matters of psychological continuity or connectedness that we must investigate.
      2. In general, doubts arise about whether an individual has persisted if there are too radical changes in its properties in
        1. a short space of time (failure of continuity) or
        2. over longer stretches of time (failure of connectedness).
      3. These factors can be in tension138, as had been noted since Reid’s “Brave Officer” objection to Locke’s “memory criterion”, and Lewis’s Methuselah139 case. Identity is an equivalence relation, so transitivity is expected. Yet it is not necessarily respected in the case of memory – because continuous so-called memory-identity fails to lead to connectedness over long periods of time.
      4. Another factor I have noted is that there’s a distinction between the evidential force of forward and backward psychological continuity, covered below.
      • Psychological Continuity140
        1. Like any persisting thing, the persistence141 of a psychology requires continuity to an appropriate degree of the entity supposedly persisting: hence ‘psychological continuity’.
        2. I’m not quite sure what ‘a psychology’ is supposed to be, but it is supposedly constitutive of personal identity for those accepting the Psychological View142
        3. Popularly, we say that an individual is ‘not the same person’ as they were before if their character or aims differ too much from that former state. Hence, such characteristics would seem to be constitutive of a psychology.
        4. As noted, it is usual for someone’s character to develop gradually over time, often in a positive sense, though there may be Dorian Grey like declensions. However, there can also be sudden changes, as when someone has a religious or political conversion experience, though – even there – there is continuity of more general psychological factors.
        5. We are comfortable with gradual changes – new memories are added and lost gradually, and tastes stay fairly constant; knowledge is acquired gradually. But, over time, these gradual changes accumulate to the degree that one might not recognise the child in the adult, say. But usually, we allow that such gradual changes are identity-preserving, even though psychological connectedness143 is to some degree lost.
        6. All this is associated with one’s First Person Perspective144, one’s window on the world from which standpoint one anticipates the future, enjoys the present, and remembers the past.
      • Forward Psychological Continuity145
        1. I think there’s a conceptual difference between:-
          1. Forward psychological continuity, and
          2. Backward psychological continuity.
        2. Imagine the case where146 I’m put into a duplicating machine147 that is intended to take a backup copy of me while preserving the original but where something goes wrong and my body is destroyed by the duplication148 process, though my duplicate wakes up perfectly happily. Then, it seems to me, I149 would never wake up and would have no future experience after entry to the duplicating machine. I would have no forward psychological continuity.
        3. However, my duplicate150 would have backward psychological continuity. Any duplicate of me, looking backward, would consider himself to be “me”, having my memories151, abilities, plans and so forth, and a body looking just like mine. But would I152 ever wake up as the duplicate? My intuition on the endurantist153 account, as I have said, is that I would not, though I suspect that on the perdurantist154 account, this might be seen as a case of intended fission155 in which I was intended to wake up twice, provided we consider that the right sort of causality156 is in place.
        4. The above considerations raise issues similar to those in closest continuer157 accounts of personal identity, and the Only 'X' and 'Y' Principle158. How can what happens to someone else affect whether (so to speak) I am me? How could the “right sort of causality” have anything to do with how I experience things?
        5. Fission is, in any case, hard to imagine happening to oneself. Just what does it mean to “wake up twice”? I dare say one could get one’s head(s) around it. The two selves would then be distinct individuals, with distinct consciousnesses, but with a shared past. On the perdurantist account, we were always distinct, but had stages co-located with everything in common.
        6. Let’s consider forward psychological continuity in everyday life. What ensures forward continuity of consciousness159 in the normal case of sleep and temporary unconsciousness? I cannot know “from the inside” that when I awake I’m the same human being160 as the one that went to sleep in my bed. The reason I believe this is for external reasons: duplication161 is not physically possible (or at least practical), and in any case I have no reason to believe it happened to me last night. Other people assure me that there was nothing out of the ordinary going on.
        7. Andy Clark162, raises this question about what ensures psychological continuity – more or less than in the case of Teletransportation – in the case of dreamless sleep, or (hypothetically) being frozen and then thawed out. We might ask what it is in the normal waking case. Maybe the whole thing is related to the arrow of time163 or in the distinctions between forward-looking psychological properties – desires and intentions yet to be satisfied or acted upon – and memories of what has already taken place.
        8. This is the sort of question that the Logical Positivists would denounce as meaningless, as no empirical evidence can decide it.
    5. Memory164
      1. Obviously, if I were to become tempted by the Psychological View165 of personal identity, I would have to give an account of memory, and it would appear here.
      2. Though quasi-memory166 is the more relevant concept for those espousing the Psychological Criterion167, it depends on the concept of memory itself.
      3. While neither version of memory is constitutive of personal identity, memories represent much of what matters168 to us in Survival169.
      4. In this regard, I might note in passing that some of the supposed memories that matter most to us may not be true accounts of what actually happened – assuming there is even a single such true account that includes any mattering in the first place.
      5. It is supposed memories that convince the experiencer thereof that he has survived some escapade in a TE170 when in fact he has not.
      • Methuselah171
        1. David Lewis’s Methuselah thought experiment172 seems to be a reductio ad absurdum of the psychological173 connectedness174 approach to personal identity.
        2. I’m unimpressed175 by Lewis176’s solution. Can there really be an uncountable infinity of persons177 residing in a single body178? But why not? Lewis thrives on pressing credibility.
        3. The “no prudential concern for the future” argument also seems to be another reductio of the connectedness approach. If I’m not the same person as the future occupant of my body, why make provisions for him. Yet, he’ll share my first-person perspective179 and I’ll be psychologically continuous180 with him.
        4. Of course, Lewis’s model (of a 137-year cut-off for psychological connectedness) is admittedly too crude. Parfit181 sees temporally extended persons as persons of reduced degree182, according to the degree of connectedness. However, this seems to destroy the natural growth and maturation of the person.
        5. I’m still the same person as was my immature self, even though most of my hopes and desires have changed. If I’m in control of my life, I own these changes, brought them about, and often think them for the good.
        6. What about where I don’t own them, but regret my corruption (moral and physical)? It’s still my corruption that I regret. I’m the same human being183.
        7. It depends what concept184 we want to use the term “person” for. We always have to distinguish personality185 from persons.
        8. Finally, consider Saul Kripke on individuation by origin186. Is this a possible objection to overlapping persons? If a person’s origin is what individuates187 it, how is it possible for persons to have vague188,189 origins as in an un-simplified Methusalah case? There are two issues here that need spelling out.
      • Quasi-Memory190
        1. One problem with Locke’s memory theory of Personal Identity191 is that it is prima facie circular. A memory can properly only be had by the person who had the experience, so cannot be used to analyse “Person192”.
        2. However, “Quasi-” prefixes do not presuppose ownership.
        3. Snowdon puts it this way193:-
          1. There is a causal linkage L linking a person’s memory to that person’s history.
          2. There is – we may suppose – a neural trace laid down at the time, and re-activated during an act of remembering.
          3. This trace might be transferred – again we may suppose – to some other subject by micro-surgery.
          4. This new subject thereby Q-remembers an event that he did not experience.
          5. So, since Q-remembering does not presuppose the identity of the person doing the Q-remembering with the person involved in the event Q-remembered, Q-predicates can without circularity be used to analyse personal identity in terms of psychological continuity and connectedness.
          6. Or so it is said.
    6. Sleep194
      1. In the context of Parfit’s195 Teletransportation196 TE197, the thought198 is that the “pulling yourself together” that the individual does on awaking is very closely analogous to what happens in the “reception pod” in teletransportation. If this is right, then either the awakening sleeper is not identical to the one who went to sleep, or the teletransportee is indeed identical to the individual who set off, and teletransportation is indeed a form of travel.
      2. I don’t believe any of this. However, it needs to be considered carefully as it’s central to the Psychological View199, which says – roughly speaking – that we are200 most fundamentally mental substances, and there has – since Descartes – been an issue about whether the thinking thing has to be continually thinking, and the dreamless sleep was the classic case of when it appeared not to be.
      3. Another context in which the word “sleep” is used is in the New Testament (Pauline) account of (believers’) death201 – and the state of the dead between death and resurrection202, which is described as “sleep”. This is also referenced in Hamlet’s soliloquy (“perchance to dream203”).
      4. There’s a mildly heretical Christian view – called “soul sleep” by detractors (though those that hold the view tend not to believe in immaterial souls) – that the individual experiences nothing between death and resurrection204.
      5. Of course, we refer to the euthanasia of animals as “putting to sleep”, but this isn’t understood to mean anything significant about the post-mortem state of the animal205.
  5. Other Philosophers of Note
    1. Introduction
      1. Apart from Locke, discussed above, almost every major philosopher – both historical and contemporary – has had something to say about personal identity, whether or not it has been a major area of concern. How could it be otherwise?
      2. I have chosen half a dozen that have featured in my researches. Some of these – together with other philosophers – will appear again in later Chapters.
    2. Descartes206
      1. Descartes is important as the initiator within modern philosophy of the psychological view207 that we are208 thinking things (res cogitans).
      2. He also initiated the use of Thought Experiments209 in the topic of personal identity. In my view he introduced (or confirmed) the muddle within philosophy that what is (clearly and distrinctly) conceivable is possible210. This will be considered in Chapter 10211.
      3. He will be considered further in the Chapter 2212, under the head of Cartesian Egos213.
    3. Kant214
      1. Text to be supplied.
    4. Leibniz215
      1. I’m uncertain whether I will have anything to say on Leibniz apart from Leibniz’s Law(s), which are covered under the Logic of Identity216.
      2. However, Leibniz’s critique of Locke’s account of personal identity, in "Leibniz (Gottfried) - What Identity Or Diversity Is", may be worth following up.
      3. As may his wider criticism of Locke in "Leibniz (Gottfried), Remnant (Peter), Bennett (Jonathan) - New Essays on Human Understanding", though I suspect life’s too short.
    5. Lewis217
      1. David Lewis’s views on personal identity are characterised by his espousal of perdurantism218.
      2. As is discussed under that Note, perdurantist metaphysics avoids the reduplication219 problems for identity-preservation following fission220. See also my Note on Counting Persons221.
      3. Lewis is also important for espousing realism with respect to possible worlds. The modal222 counterpart relation is used as an analogy in exdurantism223. I will not discuss any of this here.
      4. Lynne Rudder Baker charges Lewis with trying to reduce the First Person Perspective224.
      5. Lewis discusses the Thought Experiment225 of Methuselah226, important for the Psychological View227 of personal identity. Lewis espouses the PV228 and thinks that several Persons229 can exist successively in a single human animal230.
    6. Parfit231
      1. Parfit is famous for the dictum “identity is not what matters in survival”.
        1. I have a note – What Matters232 on this, which I cover along with other general metaphysical matters in Chapter 4233.
        2. My view remains that there must be some confusion in this dictum, in that survival234 is the same as persistence235, and without identity there is no persistence, so identity is a necessary condition for survival and must, therefore, “matter”.
        3. There may well be situations wherein other things matter – either to others or to myself – more than my survival, but this is not the same thing.
        4. Also, Parfit espouses a psychological view236 of personal identity, and has many interesting things to say on whether – given the psychological difference between myself now and my future self – I should make provision for someone to whom I am only weakly psychologically connected237, and whether others should honour advance directives made by my former self238.
        5. My view on that remains that I’m stuck with my FPP239, which persists (though it may degrade) through all the changes in my psychology, and that prudence demands that I take this into account. It matters.
      2. In addition, Parfit has invented or refined a number of interesting TEs240 to do with Fission241, Fusion242 or Teletransportation243, which will receive attention in their due place in Chapter 10244.
    7. Wittgenstein245
      1. Text to be supplied.
  6. Further text to be supplied246 in due course.



Concluding Remarks
  1. To make any progress on this topic, we need to come to a conclusion as to what sort of thing we are. We discuss this in the next Chapter247.



Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed248
  1. This section attempts to derive the readings lists automatically from those of the underlying Notes, but removing duplicated references. The list is divided into:-
  2. In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going.
  3. The purpose of this Chapter is to introduce and motivate the Thesis. As such, I need to situate it in the history of the topic. This is done in a number of introductory books, General Surveys, or collections of Papers that are standard fodder in courses on Personal Identity.
  4. Consequently, I will review the various Surveys of Personal Identity that feature in the standard reading lists, both to demonstrate that I’ve read them, and to ensure I’ve missed nothing major.
  5. If a Paper in a Collection or Chapter in an Introduction is specific to a later Chapter in this Thesis, its major consideration may be reserved until a later Chapter, even if the Book itself is not. These will be noted in due course.
  6. As the topic of Personal Identity stems primarily from Locke’s account, I need a brief statement of what this is. Most of the relevant material will appear in due course in the anthologies, but a few items not anthologised are listed below.
  7. I have largely ignored the many works by Lynne Rudder Baker and Eric Olson in this Chapter, as they feature heavily later in the Thesis.
  8. Other works were considered and either cut or reserved for later. The easiest way to see all the works considered is via the reading list at the end of this Note.



Works on this topic that I’ve actually read251, include the following:-
  1. General Surveys252
  2. Locke
    1. Locke261
    2. Forensic Property269
  3. The Psychological View
    1. Psychological View273
    2. Psychology275
    3. Psychological Criterion277
    4. Memory
    5. Sleep300
  4. Other Philosophers of Note
    1. Descartes301
    2. Kant302
    3. Leibniz303
    4. Lewis305
    5. Parfit307
    6. Wittgenstein316


A further reading list might start with:-
  1. General Surveys318
  2. Locke
    1. Locke329
    2. Forensic Property331
  3. The Psychological View
    1. Psychological View332
    2. Psychology333
    3. Psychological Criterion334
    4. Memory
    5. Sleep342
  4. Other Philosophers of Note
    1. Descartes343
    2. Kant344
    3. Leibniz347
    4. Lewis348
    5. Parfit350
    6. Wittgenstein354



In-Page Footnotes:

Footnote 11: Footnote 20: Footnote 146:
  1. On an endurantist account of persistence – see elsewhere for the distinction and its relevance to this case – between endurantism and perdurantism.
Footnote 147:
  1. I don’t think this is a tendentious term.
  2. The intended use of the machine is to produce an exact copy without destroying the original.
  3. So, this isn’t the same as Dennett’s “Telecloning” machine in "Dennett (Daniel) - The Mind's I - Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul: Introduction", where the destruction of the original is intended, yet (despite the label) the machine is used as a means of transport.
Footnote 162: In "Clark (Andy) & Kuhn (Robert Lawrence) - Aeon: Video - Andy Clark - Virtual immortality".

Footnote 175:
  1. This text is all a bit of a jumble.
  2. I need to revise it after re-reading, and commenting on, "Lewis (David) - Survival and Identity", in which the TE appears.
Footnote 182:
  1. I need to re-read Parfit to see what he means (assuming he said this!).
  2. I have a Note on Degrees of Personhood, but it is talking about something else, I think.
Footnote 193:
  1. In "Snowdon (Paul) - The Self and Personal Identity".
Footnote 198:
  1. In Paul Broks’s contribution to "Smith (Barry C.), Broks (Paul), Kennedy (A.L.) & Evans (Jules) - Audio: What Does It Mean to Be Me?".
Footnote 203:
  1. To die, to sleep – to sleep, perchance to dream – ay, there’s the rub, for in this sleep of death what dreams may come…
    → Hamlet, Act-III, Scene-I, Lines 66-68
Footnote 248: Footnote 254: Footnotes 255, 272: Footnote 256: Footnote 257: Footnote 258: Footnote 259: Footnote 264: Footnote 271: Footnote 283: Footnote 285: Footnote 306: Footnote 308: Footnote 310: Footnote 312: Footnote 313: Footnote 314: Footnote 319: Footnote 320: Footnotes 321, 324: Footnotes 322, 323: Footnote 325: Footnote 326: Footnote 327: Footnote 328: Footnote 330: Footnote 346: Footnote 349: Footnote 352: Footnote 353: Footnote 355: Footnote 357:


Table of the Previous 12 Versions of this Note: (of 24)

Date Length Title
06/07/2023 00:43:12 82654 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
28/09/2022 10:24:58 82323 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
11/05/2022 18:59:02 82290 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
01/05/2022 18:20:10 76054 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
11/04/2022 00:01:26 77774 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
03/01/2022 23:58:34 54931 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
01/10/2021 13:17:46 49027 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
29/03/2021 19:23:31 28916 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
22/03/2021 00:28:48 15896 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
07/02/2021 19:46:34 11920 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
14/07/2019 18:05:46 11854 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)
18/04/2019 18:18:43 8847 Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction)



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01/06/2024 05:33:54 None available Thesis - Preface


Summary of Notes Referenced by This Note

Animalism Animalism - Arguments For Animalism - Objections Animals Atherton - Locke and the Issue Over Innateness
Awaiting Attention (Personal Identity) Baillie - What Am I? Baker - Personal Identity Over Time Baker - What Am I? Biological Criterion
Blackburn - Has Kant Refuted Parfit? Body Body Criterion Brain Brain Criterion
Brain Transplants Brandom - Toward a Normative Pragmatics (Introduction) Cartesian Ego Causality Closest Continuer
Concepts Connectedness vs Continuity Consciousness Constitution View Counting Persons
Dancy - Memory Death DeGrazia - Are We Essentially Persons? Degrees of Personhood Descartes
Duplication Endurantism Exdurantism Fine - A Counter-Example to Locke's Thesis First-Person Perspective
Fission Forensic Property Frankfurt - Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person Fusion Garrett - Personal Identity and Reductionism
General Surveys Human Animals Human Beings Hybrid Theories I
Jen_080204 (Brandom, Chisholm, Baillie) Jen_080317 (Baker) Johnston - Human Beings Kant Leibniz
Lewis Life Locke Locke - Essay, Book 2, Chapter 27 Locke on Personal Identity
Logic of Identity Lowe - Locke on Identity Memory Metaphysics Methuselah
Mind Modality Olson - Immanent Causation and Life After Death Olson - Personal Identity - Oxford Bibliographies Online Olson - What Are We? Animals
Olson - What Are We? Brains Olson - What Are We? Temporal Parts Olson - What Are We? The Question Only 'X' and 'Y' Principle Origins
Parfit Parfit - What We Believe Ourselves To Be Perdurantism Persistence Persistence Criteria
Person Personality PID Note, Book & Paper Usage Properties Psychological Continuity
Psychological Continuity - Forward Psychological Criterion Psychological View Psychology Quasi-Memory
Reduplication Objections Resurrection Self Sleep Snowdon - The Self and Personal Identity
Souls Status: Thesis Dashboard (2024: May) Sterelny & Griffiths - From Sociobiology to Evolutionary Psychology Substance Survival
Teletransportation Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction) Thesis - Chapter 02 (What are We?) Thesis - Chapter 04 (Basic Metaphysical Issues) Thesis - Chapter 10 (Thought Experiments)
Thesis - Current Stance Thesis - Method & Form Thought Experiments Time Transhumanism
Uploading Vague Identity What are We? What Matters Wittgenstein
Wittgenstein - Bodily Sensations Woolhouse - Leibniz and Substance Woolhouse - Locke’s Theory of Knowledge Works Read - Explanation  

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Summary of Notes Citing This Note

PID Note, Book & Paper Usage, 2 Status: Thesis Dashboard (2024: May), 2 Thesis - Chapter 05 (Persistence and Time) Thesis - Chapter 10 (Thought Experiments) Thesis - Preface
Website - Progress to Date (2024 - May), 2 Website Generator Documentation - Functors, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 Website Generator Documentation - Thesis Technology, 2, 3, 4, 5    

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Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note

Author Title Medium Extra Links Read?
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 05 (Persistence and Time) Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Chapter 10 (Thought Experiments) Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes
Todman (Theo) Thesis - Preface Paper Medium Quality Abstract   Yes



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Allison (Henry) Locke's Theory of Personal Identity: A Re-Examination Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Tipton - Locke on Human Understanding - Selected Essays No
Alston (William) & Bennett (Jonathan) Locke on People and Substances Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Philosophical Review, Vol. 97, No. 1, Jan., 1988, pp. 25-46 No
Armstrong (David) Identity Through Time Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Van Inwagen - Time and Cause, 1980, pp. 67-78 Yes
Armstrong (John) La bella vita Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 14 February, 2014 Yes
Arnold (Carrie) Watchers of the earth Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 13 April, 2017 Yes
Arnold (Keith) The Subject of Radical Change Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Philosophical Studies, Vol. 33, No. 4 (May, 1978), pp. 395-401 Yes
Askowitz (Andrea) So I exaggerate a little – am I wrong to jazz up my stories? Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 20 June, 2017 Yes
Asma (Stephen) We could all do with learning how to improvise a little better Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract Aeon, 29 May, 2017 Yes
Atherton (Margaret) Locke and the Issue Over Innateness Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Chappell - Locke - Oxford Readings Yes
Ayers (Michael R.) Artificial and Other Problematical Objects Paper - Cited Ayers - Locke (Vol. 2 - Ontology), 1991, Chapter 21, pp. 239-253 Yes
Ayers (Michael R.) Contemporary Reactions to Locke's Theory Paper - Cited Ayers - Locke (Vol. 2 - Ontology), 1991, Chapter 24, pp. 269-277 Yes
Ayers (Michael R.) Forms of Material Unity Paper - Cited Ayers - Locke (Vol. 2 - Ontology), 1991, Chapter 20, pp. 229-238 Yes
Ayers (Michael R.) Identity: Introduction Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Ayers - Locke (Vol. 2 - Ontology), 1991, Introduction to Part III, pp. 205-206 Yes
Ayers (Michael R.) Locke (Ontology) - Introduction & Conclusion Paper - Cited Ayers - Locke (Vol. 2 - Ontology), 1991, Introduction (pp. 1-14) & Conclusion (pp. 293-295) Yes
Ayers (Michael R.) Locke (Vol 2 - Ontology) Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 26%
Ayers (Michael R.) Locke on Living Things Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Ayers - Locke (Vol. 2 - Ontology), 1991, Chapter 19, pp. 216-228 Yes
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Ayers (Michael R.) Neo-Lockean and Anti-Lockean Theories of Personal Identity in Analytic Philosophy Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Ayers - Locke (Vol. 2 - Ontology), 1991, Chapter 25, pp. 278-292 Yes
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Baillie (James) Problems in Personal Identity Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Baillie (James) - Problems in Personal Identity 45%
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Baker (Lynne Rudder) On the Very Idea of a Form of Life Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Inquiry, 27:277–89, 1984 8%
Barash (David P.) Animal magnetism Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 13 May, 2014 Yes
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Blatti (Stephan) Animalism (SEP) Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, 2014 Yes
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Blatti (Stephan), Ed. The Lives of Human Animals Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract The Southern Journal of Philosophy Volume 52, Spindel Supplement, 2014 Yes
Boden (Margaret) Artificial Intelligence in Psychology: Interdisciplinary Essays Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Boden (Margaret) - Artificial Intelligence in Psychology: Interdisciplinary Essays Yes
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Brennan (Andrew) Review of Harold Noonan's 'Personal Identity' Paper - Cited Philosophical Quarterly 42, No. 166, Jan., 1992, pp. 103-106 No
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Carruthers (Peter) Introducing Persons: Theories and Arguments in the Philosophy of Mind Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract Carruthers (Peter) - Introducing Persons: Theories and Arguments in the Philosophy of Mind Yes
Carruthers (Peter) & Chamberlain (Andrew), Eds. Evolution and the Human Mind: Modularity, Language and Meta-Cognition Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract Carruthers (Peter) & Chamberlain (Andrew), Eds. - Evolution and the Human Mind: Modularity, Language and Meta-Cognition Yes
Case (Holly) The new authoritarians Paper - Cited Aeon, 07 March, 2017 Yes
Cavalieri (Paola) & Singer (Peter), Eds. The Great Ape Project - Equality Beyond Humanity Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Cavalieri (Paola) & Singer (Peter), Eds. - The Great Ape Project - Equality Beyond Humanity Yes
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Chappell (Vere), Ed. Locke: Oxford Readings in Philosophy Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Bibliographical details to be supplied 8%
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Chatfield (Tom) The attention economy Paper - Cited Aeon, 07 October, 2013 Yes
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Chihara (Charles S.) & Fodor (Jerry) Operationalism and Ordinary Language: A Critique of Wittgenstein Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Fodor - Representations - Philosophical Essays on the Foundations of Cognitive Science No
Clark (Andy) & Kuhn (Robert Lawrence) Aeon: Video - Andy Clark - Virtual immortality Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Aeon, 19 August, 2019 Yes
Clarke (D.S.) A Defence of the No-Ownership Theory Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Mind, 81, No. 321 (Jan., 1972), pp. 97-101 No
Claxton (Guy) Get your kicks Paper - Cited Aeon, 08 November, 2013 Yes
Clay (Alexa) Utopia Inc Paper - Cited Aeon, 28 February, 2017 Yes
Conee (Earl) Reply to Timothy Chappell Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Mind, Volume 109, Number 434, 1 April 2000 , pp. 281-283(3) Yes
Cope (Suzanne) Cognitive dissonance helps old dogs with their new tricks Paper - Cited Aeon, 21 June, 2017 Yes
Crabb (Jon) Monster mash Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 23 October, 2017 Yes
Craig (William Lane) McTaggart's Paradox and the Problem of Temporary Intrinsics Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Analysis, Vol. 58, No. 2 (Apr., 1998), pp. 122-127 33%
Crane (Tim) Substance (4-Lecture BA Course) Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Tim Crane's Home Page, 2005 Yes
Currid-Halkett (Elizabeth) Conspicuous consumption is over. It’s all about intangibles now Paper - Cited Aeon, 07 June, 2017 Yes
Dainton (Barry) From Phenomenal Selves to Hyper-Selves Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract O'Hear (Anthony), Ed. - Mind, Self and Person, 2015 Yes
Dainton (Barry) Self: Philosophy In Transit Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 7%
Dainton (Barry) Self: Philosophy In Transit: Prologue Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Dainton (Barry) - Self: Philosophy In Transit, Prologue Yes
Damasio (Antonio) Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Damasio (Antonio) - Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain Yes
Dancy (Jonathan), Ed. Reading Parfit Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Dancy (Jonathan), Ed. - Reading Parfit 17%
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Dixon (Thomas) The waterworks Paper - Cited Aeon, 22 February, 2013 Yes
Dreger (Alice) You might be in a medical experiment and not even know it Paper - Cited Aeon, 30 January, 2017 Yes
Duncan (Matt) I Think, Therefore I Persist Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Volume 93, 2015 - Issue 4, Pages 740-756 Yes
Ehring (Douglas) Personal Identity and Time Travel Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Philosophical Studies, Vol. 52, No. 3 (Nov., 1987), pp. 427-433 Yes
Fehlhaber (Kate) What know-it-alls don’t know, or the illusion of competence Paper - Cited Aeon, 17 May, 2017 Yes
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Flora (Carlin) Praise them! Paper - Cited Aeon, 09 July, 2014 Yes
Fodor (Jerry) Representations - Philosophical Essays on the Foundations of Cognitive Science Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied No
Fodor (Jerry) The Mind Doesn't Work That Way - The Scope and Limits of Computational Psychology Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Fodor (Jerry) - The Mind Doesn't Work That Way - The Scope and Limits of Computational Psychology Yes
Fodor (Jerry) The Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract Fodor (Jerry) - The Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology Yes
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Frankfurt (Harry) Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Rosenthal - The Nature of Mind Yes
Funkhouser (Eric) Metaphysics, Spring 2014 Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Medium Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 94%
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Furedi (Frank) The ages of distraction Paper - Cited Aeon, 01 April, 2016 Yes
Gale (Richard) On Some Pernicious Thought-Experiments Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy, Ed. Tamara Horowitz & Gerald J. Massey, 1991 Yes
Garrett (Brian) Personal Identity Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge. Garrett, Brian (1998, 2004). Personal identity. Retrieved December 22, 2005 Yes
Garrett (Brian) Personal Identity and Self-consciousness Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Garrett (Brian) - Personal Identity and Self-consciousness Yes
Garrett (Brian) Persons Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge. Garrett, Brian (1998). Persons. Yes
Garrett (Brian) Review of Noonan's 'Personal Identity' Paper - Cited Nous, Vol. 26, No. 1, Mar., 1992, pp. 128-130 No
Garrett (Neil) Dishonesty gets easier on the brain the more you do it Paper - Cited Aeon, 07 March, 2017 Yes
Gasser (Georg) & Stefan (Matthias), Eds. Personal Identity: Complex or Simple? Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract Gasser (Georg) & Stefan (Matthias), Eds. - Personal Identity: Complex or Simple? 4%
Gershon (Livia) The future is emotional Paper - Cited Aeon, 22 June, 2017 Yes
Glausiusz (Josie) Would the world be more peaceful if there were more women leaders? Paper - Cited Aeon, 27 October, 2017 Yes
Gopnik (Alison) Video - Alison Gopnik: Cognition, care and spirituality Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 20 September 2021 Yes
Grayling (Anthony) Wittgenstein - A Very Short Introduction Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Grayling (Anthony) - Wittgenstein - A Very Short Introduction Yes
Grice (H. Paul) Personal Identity Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract Perry - Personal Identity Yes
Guerrero (Alexander) The lottocracy Paper - Cited Aeon, 23 January, 2014 Yes
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: A-B (& General) Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 100%
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: C-F Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 51%
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: G-K Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 32%
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: L-P Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 34%
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: Q-S Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 30%
Hains (Brigid) & Hains (Paul) Aeon: T-Z Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 21%
Hanink (Johanna) Even the ancient Greeks thought their best days were history Paper - Cited Aeon, 26 June, 2017 Yes
Henderson (Gretchen E.) The history of ugliness shows that there is no such thing Paper - Cited Aeon, 08 March, 2016 Yes
Heneghan (Liam) We have a new word for that feeling when travel makes everything new Paper - Cited Aeon, 18 September, 2017 Yes
Hershenov (David) Countering the Appeal of the Psychological Approach to Personal Identity Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Philosophy - 79, Jul2004, Issue 309, p447-474, 28p; Yes
Hershenov (David) Review of Nancey Murphy's 'Bodies and Souls, or Spirited Bodies?' Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Religious Studies, 43:2, June 2007, 237-242 Yes
Hirsch (Eli) The Concept of Identity Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Hirsch (Eli) - The Concept of Identity Yes
Hofstadter (Douglas) & Dennett (Daniel), Eds. The Mind's I - Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Medium Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 14%
Horowitz (Tamara) & Massey (Gerald J.) Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 3%
Hossack (Keith) Five Lectures on the Logic and Metaphysics of Identity Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Hossack - Lecture Handouts Yes
Humphrey (Nicholas) Humans are the only animals who crave oblivion through suicide Paper - Cited Aeon, 28 July, 2017 Yes
Isaacs (Anton) Chemobrain is real. Here’s what to expect after cancer treatment Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 1 April 2020 Yes
Jaekl (Philip) Sleepwalking is the result of a survival mechanism gone awry Paper - Cited Aeon, 03 March, 2017 Yes
Johnston (Mark) Human Beings Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Journal of Philosophy, Volume 84, Issue 2 (Feb 1987), 59-83 Yes
Jolley (Nicholas) Personal Identity Paper - Cited Low Quality Abstract Jolley - Locke: His Philosophical Thought, OUP, 1999 Yes
Kingma (Elselijn) Were You Part of Your Mother? Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Mind, Volume 128, Issue 511, July 2019, Pages 609–646 Yes
Kreplin (Ute) Meditation under the microscope Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 09 July, 2018 Yes
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Labaree (David) An unlikely triumph Paper - Cited Aeon, 11 October, 2017 Yes
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Lee (Jihyun) Why the most successful students have no passion for school Paper - Cited Aeon, 06 March, 2017 Yes
Leibniz (Gottfried) What Identity Or Diversity Is Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Leibniz, Remnant, Bennett - New Essays on Human Understanding, Chapter 27 25%
Leibniz (Gottfried), Remnant (Peter), Bennett (Jonathan) New Essays on Human Understanding Book - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Leibniz (Gottfried), Remnant (Peter), Bennett (Jonathan) - New Essays on Human Understanding 2%
Leibniz (Gottfried), Woolhouse (Roger), Francks (Richard) Leibniz - Philosophical Texts Book - Cited Leibniz (Gottfried), Woolhouse (Roger), Francks (Richard) - Leibniz - Philosophical Texts Yes
Lerner (Berel Dov) Review of 'Personal Identity and Ethics: A Brief Introduction' by David Shoemaker Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Metapsychology Online Reviews, Jun 16th 2009 (Volume 13, Issue 25) Yes
Lewis (David) Philosophical Papers Volume I Book - Cited Low Quality Abstract Lewis (David) - Philosophical Papers Volume I Yes
Lewis (David) Philosophical Papers Volume II Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 15%
Lewis (David) Prisoners' Dilemma is a Newcomb Problem Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Lewis - Philosophical Papers Volume II, Part 7: Dependence and Decision, Chapter 26 33%
Lewis (David) Survival and Identity Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Lewis - Philosophical Papers Volume I, Part 1: Ontology, Chapter 5 Yes
Lewis (Marc) & Shelly (Shaun) We need ecstasy and cocaine in place of Prozac and Xanax Paper - Cited Aeon, 15 May, 2017 Yes
Liao (S. Matthew) The Organism View Defended Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract The Monist, Vol. 89, No. 3, Coming into Being and Passing Away (July 2006), pp. 334-350 Yes
Lichtenberg (Judith) Abolish life sentences Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Aeon, 12 August 2022 Yes
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Locke (John) Of Identity and Diversity Paper - Cited Locke - Essay, Book 2, Chapter 27 Yes
Locke (John), A.M. Locke on the Human Understanding Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Bibliographical details to be supplied 8%
Lockwood (Michael) When Does a Life Begin? Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Lockwood - Moral Dilemmas in Modern Medicine, 1987 Yes
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Lowe (E.J.) Locke on Human Understanding Book - Cited (via Paper Cited) Low Quality Abstract Bibliographical details to be supplied 30%
Lowe (E.J.) Locke: Identity Paper - Cited High Quality Abstract Lowe - Locke on Human Understanding Chapter 5, 1995 Yes
Lowe (E.J.) Review of Noonan's 'Personal Identity' Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Mind 99.395, July 1990, pp. 477-479 No
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Paul (Ellen), Miller (Fred) & Paul (Jeffrey) Personal Identity: Introduction Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Paul, Miller & Paul - Personal Identity, 2005 No
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Scruton (Roger) Human Rights: Nonsense On Stilts? Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Forbes Magazine, 20 May 2014 Yes
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Wiggins (David) Locke, Butler and the Stream of Consciousness: And Men as Natural Kind Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Philosophy, Vol. 51, No. 196 (Apr., 1976), pp. 131-158 Yes
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Wiggins (David) The Person as Object of Science, as Subject of Experience, and as Locus of Value Paper - Cited Medium Quality Abstract Peacocke & Gillett - Persons and Personality: A Contemporary Inquiry, 1987, Chapter 4 Yes
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Williams (Bernard) Consistency and Realism Paper - Cited Williams - Problems of the Self Yes
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