<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /> <title>Note: Write-ups - DeGrazia - Are We Essentially Persons? (Theo Todman's Web Page)</title> </head><body> <a name="Top"></a> <h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Notes Pages</h1><hr><h2>Write-ups</h2><h3>DeGrazia - Are We Essentially Persons?</h3><p class = "Centered">(Work In Progress: output at 17/08/2018 18:04:33)<br><br>(For earlier versions of this Note, <a href="#TableOfPreviousVersions">see the table at the end</a>)</p><p>For Text Colour-conventions (at end of page): <A HREF="#ColourConventions">Click Here</a>.</p><hr> <P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><ol type="1"><li>This write-up is (or will be) a review of <a name="15"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5807.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Are we essentially persons? Olson, Baker, and a reply</A>". </li><li>The <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_776_1">Abstract</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_776_1"></A> is:- <ul type="disc"><li><FONT COLOR = "800080">Recently, <a name="24"></a><A HREF = "../../Authors/O/Author_Olson (Eric).htm">Eric Olson</A> and <a name="25"></a><A HREF = "../../Authors/B/Author_Baker (Lynne Rudder).htm">Lynne Rudder Baker</A> have vigorously debated the question of our essence: <a name="1"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_7/Notes_734.htm">What are we</A><SUP>2</SUP>, most fundamentally: human animals, persons, or something else? </li><li>After reconstructing Olson's critique of the standard view  according to which we are essentially persons and our identity over time consists in psychological continuity  I argue that Baker goes some distance towards meeting his challenge to account plausibly for the relationship between persons and human animals. </li><li>Then I contend that her version of the standard view has major difficulties: a "newborn problem"; a dubious ontology; and a problematic account of personal identity.</FONT> </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><B><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_776_3">Sections</A></U><SUB>3</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_776_3"></A></B><ol type="1"><li>Introduction</li><li> Olson s Challenge to the Standard View<ul type="disc"><li>The Fetus Problem</li><li>The problematic relation between the person and the early human organism</li><li>The problematic relation between the person and your PVS successor</li><li>The problem of implying that we are not animals.</li></ul></li><li>Baker s Reply to Olson s Challenge</li><li>A Critique of Baker s View<ul type="disc"><li>The Newborn Problem</li><li>A Dubious Ontology</li><li>A Problematic View of Personal Identity</li></ul></li><li>Concluding Reflections</li></ol><BR><HR><BR><b>Bibliography</b> <ul type="disc"><li><b>Baker</b>: <ol type="1"><li><a name="21"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_66.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View</A>",</li><li><a name="16"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4282.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - What Am I?</A>"</li></ol></li><li><b>Olson</b>: <ol type="1"><li><a name="22"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_130.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Human Animal - Personal Identity Without Psychology</A>",</li><li><a name="17"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4739.htm">Olson (Eric) - Was I Ever a Fetus?</A>"</li><li><a name="18"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4426.htm">Olson (Eric) - Reply to Lynne Rudder Baker</A>"</li></ol></li><li><b>Relevant Others</b>: <ol type="1"><li><a name="19"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6472.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Advance Directives, Dementia, and the Someone Else Problem</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_776_4">DeGrazia</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_776_4"></A></li><li><a name="23"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1478.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status</A>", DeGrazia</li><li><a name="20"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23352.htm">Schechtman (Marya) - Personhood and Personal Identity</A>", Schechtman</li></ol></li></ul><u><b>Notes</b></u><ol type="1"><li><B>Introduction</B><ul type="disc"><li>Three distinct issues, the last brought to prominence by Olson & Baker:- <ol type="i"><li>What is the nature of personhood; ie. what is a <a name="2"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_9.htm">person</A><SUP>5</SUP>? </li><li>Personal Identity: what are the <a name="3"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_91.htm">persistence conditions</A><SUP>6</SUP> of persons over time?</li><li>What is our essence? <a name="4"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_7/Notes_734.htm">What are we</A><SUP>7</SUP> most fundamentally: human animals, persons, or something else?<BR></ol></li><li>Olson contends that (what he calls) the Standard View (SV) of personal identity  which requires some kind of <a name="5"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_16.htm">psychological continuity</A><SUP>8</SUP>  has highly implausible implications. </li><li>Olson claims that the SV holds that we are essentially <a name="6"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_9.htm">persons</A><SUP>9</SUP>, and instead posits that we are essentially <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_776_10">(living</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_776_10"></A>) <a name="7"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_12/Notes_1265.htm">human animals</A><SUP>11</SUP>, members of the species <a name="8"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_11.htm">Homo sapiens</A><SUP>12</SUP> with <a name="9"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_9/Notes_911.htm">biological</A><SUP>13</SUP> persistence conditions. </li><li>Olson claims that the SV has no plausible account of the relation between the person and the associated human animal. Baker  who accepts  person essentialism seeks to provide this account with her <a name="10"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_25.htm">Constitution View</A><SUP>14</SUP>. We <a name="11"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_75.htm">human persons</A><SUP>15</SUP> are <a name="12"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_62.htm">constituted</A><SUP>16</SUP> by, but are not identical to, human animals. </li><li>DeGrazia s plan is to:- <ol type="i"><li>Reconstruct Olson s critique of the SV</li><li>Argue that Baker goes a long way towards meeting Olson s challenge</li><li>Contend that Baker s <a name="13"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_0/Notes_25.htm">CV</A><SUP>17</SUP> nevertheless has three major difficulties:- <ol type="a"><li>The  newborn problem </li><li>A dubious ontology</li><li>A problematic account of personal identity<BR></ol></ol></li></ul></li><li><B>Olson s Challenge to the Standard View</B><ul type="disc"><li><B>2.1 The Fetus Problem</B><ul type="square"><li> </li><li></li></ul></li><li><B>2.2 The problematic relation between the person and the early human organism</B><ul type="square"><li> </li><li></li></ul></li><li><B>2.3 The problematic relation between the person and your PVS successor</B><ul type="square"><li> </li><li></li></ul></li><li><B>2.4 The problem of implying that we are not animals</B> <ul type="square"><li> </li><li></li></ul></li></ul></li><li><B>Baker s Reply to Olson s Challenge</B><ul type="disc"><li> </li></ul></li><li><B>A Critique of Baker s View</B><ul type="disc"><li><B>4.1 The Newborn Problem</B><ul type="square"><li> </li><li></li></ul></li><li><B>4.2 A Dubious Ontology</B><ul type="square"><li> </li><li></li></ul></li><li><B>4.3 A Problematic View of Personal Identity</B><ul type="square"><li> </li><li></li></ul></li></ul></li><li><B>5. Concluding Reflections</B><ul type="disc"><li> </li></ul></li></ol><BR>&rarr; Further details to be <a name="14"></a><A HREF = "../Notes_7/Notes_742.htm">supplied</A><SUP>18</SUP></P> <FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><HR><h3 class = "Left">In-Page Footnotes:</h3><a name="On-Page_Link_776_1"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_776_1"><B>Footnote 1</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I m not sure where this came from! </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_776_3"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_776_3"><B>Footnote 3</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Some of these headings are the Author s. Others, and the numbering, are mine. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_776_4"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_776_4"><B>Footnote 4</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>He actually quotes an earlier article from <em>Bioethics</em> 13, (1999), 385-6, which I don t have. It may be the same text. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_776_10"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_776_10"><B>Footnote 10</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This (bracketed) word is in the text. </li><li>Olson denies that we will ever be <a name="26"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_65.htm">corpses</a>, thereby courting the  corpse problem for animalism. </li></ul></center><br> <br><hr><h3 class = "Left">Printable Versions:</h3> <UL><li>Follow (<A Href="Notes_Print/NotesPrint_776_0_P_R.htm" TARGET = "_top">this link</A>) for level 0 (with reading list), and </li><li>Follow (<A Href="Notes_Print/NotesPrint_776_1_P.htm" TARGET = "_top">this link</A>) for level 1.</li></UL> <a name="TableOfPreviousVersions"></a><BR><HR><h3 class= "Left">Table of the Previous 2 Versions of this Note:</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=700> <TR><TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeCenter"><strong>Date</strong></TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeRight"><strong>Length</strong></TD> <TD WIDTH="70%" class = "BridgeLeft"><strong>Title</strong></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">18/12/2010 19:58:05</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">1880</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_776_40530832.htm">DeGrazia - Are We Essentially Persons?</A></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">12/02/2009 21:30:14</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">1887</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_776_39856896.htm">DeGrazia - Are We Essentially Persons?</A></TD></TR> </TABLE> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950><TR> <TH WIDTH="25%">Note last updated</TH> <TH WIDTH="50%">Reading List for this Topic</TH> <TH WIDTH="25%">Parent Topic</TH></TR> <TR><TD WIDTH="25%">17/08/2018 18:04:38</TD> <TD WIDTH="50%">None available</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%"><A href ="../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_734.htm">What are We?</A></TD></TR> </TABLE></center> <hr><h3>Summary of Note Links from this Page</h3> <CENTER> <TABLE Class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_742.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Awaiting Attention (Write-ups)</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_911.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Biological Criterion</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_62.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Constitution</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_25.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Constitution View</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_65.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Corpses</span></A></TD> </TR> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_11.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Homo Sapiens</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1265.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Human Animals</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_75.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Human Persons</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#b3c6ff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_91.htm"><span title="Plug Note - Reading List TBA">Persistence Criteria</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#b3c6ff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_9.htm"><span title="Plug Note - Reading List TBA">Person</span></A></TD> </TR> <TR> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_16.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">Psychological Continuity</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#e6ecff" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_734.htm"><span title="Plug Note - With Reading List">What are We?</span></A></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P class = "Centered">To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.</P> <BR><HR><BR><h3>Summary of Note Links to this Page</h3> <CENTER> <TABLE Class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR> <td bgcolor="#b3ffb3" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_762.htm#16"><span title="High Quality">Thesis - Chapter 02 (What are We?)</span></A></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P class = "Centered">To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.</P> <br><hr><br><CENTER> <h3>Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=950> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Author</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Title</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Medium</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Extra Links</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"><B><B>Read?</B></B></TD> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">DeGrazia (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">Are we essentially persons? Olson, Baker, and a reply</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5807.htm#19">Paper</A> <img src="../../cancel.png"alt="Low Quality Abstract" Title="Low Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> </TABLE></center> <CENTER> <br><hr><br><h3>References & Reading List</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=950> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Author</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Title</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Medium</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Source</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"><B>Read?</B></TD> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Baker (Lynne Rudder)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_66.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../accept.png" alt="High Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Baker (Lynne Rudder)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">What Am I?</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4282.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../accept.png"alt="High Quality Abstract" Title="Write-Up Complete"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Mar99, Vol. 59 Issue 1, p151, 9p;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">DeGrazia (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Advance Directives, Dementia, and the Someone Else Problem</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6472.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../accept.png"alt="High Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">DeGrazia - Human Identity and Bioethics, 2005, Chapter 5</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 4%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">DeGrazia (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Are we essentially persons? Olson, Baker, and a reply</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5807.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../cancel.png"alt="Low Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Philosophical Forum; Winter2002, Vol. 33 Issue 1, p101, 20p</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">DeGrazia (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Human Identity and Bioethics</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1385.htm">Book - Cited (via Paper Cited)</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png" alt="Medium Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Bibliographical details to be supplied</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 10%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">DeGrazia (David)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1478.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png" alt="Medium Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">DeGrazia (David) - Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">No</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Olson (Eric)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Papers on Identity Boxes: Vol 13 (Olson)</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_05/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_5972.htm">Book - Cited (via Paper Cited)</A> <img src="../../cancel.png" alt="Low Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Bibliographical details to be supplied</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 24%</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Olson (Eric)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Reply to Lynne Rudder Baker</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4426.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Mar99, Vol. 59 Issue 1, p161, 6p;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Olson (Eric)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">The Human Animal - Personal Identity Without Psychology</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_130.htm">Book - Cited</A> <img src="../../cancel.png" alt="Low Quality Abstract"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Olson (Eric) - The Human Animal - Personal Identity Without Psychology</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Olson (Eric)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Was I Ever a Fetus?</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4739.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Mar97, Vol. 57 Issue 1, p95, 18p;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Schechtman (Marya)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Personhood and Personal Identity</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23352.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title=""></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 87, No. 2 (Feb., 1990), pp. 71-92</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 17%</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <a name="ColourConventions"></a><br><hr><br><h3 class = "Left">Text Colour Conventions</h3><OL TYPE="1"><li><FONT COLOR = "000000">Black</FONT>: Printable Text by me; 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