<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en"><head><meta charset="utf-8"><title>Printable Note - Personal Identity - Thesis - Outline (Theo Todman's Web Page) </title><link href="../../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <P ALIGN="Center"><FONT Size = 3 FACE="Arial"><B><HR>Theo Todman's Web Page<HR><p>For Text Colour-conventions (at end of page): <A HREF="#ColourConventions">Click Here</a></p><U>Personal Identity - Thesis - Outline</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> The Thesis seems to fall naturally into three sections (other than the Introduction and Conclusion); namely, Chapters 2-5 (setting up the problem), chapters 6-9 (Olson and Baker s views contrasted); and Chapters 10-11 (testing the preferred solution). Consequently, I anticipate my Thesis having the following chapters:- <ol type="1"><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 01</U><SUP>1</SUP>: Introduction</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 02</U><SUP>2</SUP>: <a name="28"></a><U>What are We</U><SUP>3</SUP>?</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 03</U><SUP>4</SUP>: What is a Person?</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 04</U><SUP>5</SUP>: Basic Metaphysical Issues</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 05</U><SUP>6</SUP>: Persistence and Time</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 06</U><SUP>7</SUP>: Animalism and Arguments for It</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 07</U><SUP>8</SUP>: The Constitution View and Arguments for It</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 08</U><SUP>9</SUP>: Arguments against Animalism</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 09</U><SUP>10</SUP>: Arguments against the Constitution View</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 10</U><SUP>11</SUP>: Thought Experiments</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 11</U><SUP>12</SUP>: Resurrection</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Chapter 12</U><SUP>13</SUP>: Conclusion</li></ol>I ve started a <a name="28"></a><U>Note</U><SUP>14</SUP> listing  parked future reading. <BR><BR>For convenience, brief abstracts (as currently intended) of the above chapters are given below. I have included hyperlinks in the above list to my initial thoughts on these topics (and to reading lists and plans for further research) by way of further clarification. I ve also included links from the  Thought Experiment abstract below, for the same reason. The reading lists are rather full, and I ll need to whittle them down to those I actually intend to read (and, better, address). <BR><BR><B><U>Chapter abstracts</B></U><BR><ol type="1"><li><B>Introduction</B>: Something like this document, but in narrative form, maybe including a brief historical general survey of Personal Identity. </li><li><B><a name="28"></a><U>What are We</U><SUP>15</SUP>? </B>: The topic  personal identity has historically presupposed that we are (in the sense of  identical to , or  most fundamentally ) persons, whereas I (along with other animalists) claim that we are identical to human animals.  We requires explanation. This chapter will sort out the topic of discussion for the Thesis as a whole. </li><li><B>What is a Person?</B>: This Chapter will canvass the various views and consider how important issues in this area are to my main concern of our identity. </li><li><B>Basic Metaphysical Issues</B>: Substances and sortals are central to the persistence of anything, and in particular to my claim that persons are phase sortals of human animals (the substances). I need to address the concept of a SOUL as souls are the major counter-claim to the persisting entity being an animal; or at least popularly so. The question of Natural Kinds arises in considering whether PERSON is a natural kind concept. </li><li><B>Persistence and Time</B>: A number of thought experiments that feature in the following chapter seem to fail if perdurantism is true (because the reduplication objections fail). Depending on whether any of these are critical to my arguments, I may need to consider the impact of perdurantism. But this complex area may be a step too far within a fairly limited word-count. I m also unsure whether it should feature before or after the account of Thought Experiments. </li><li><B>Animalism and Arguments for it</B>: This Chapter describes what Animalism is, with an excursus on animals and organisms and their persistence. It puts forward the arguments in favour of animalism, those against being reserved for a later Chapter. It focuses on the account of <A HREF = "../../../Authors/O/Author_Olson (Eric).htm">Eric Olson</A>, the primary contemporary exponent of Animalism. </li><li><B>The Constitution View and Arguments for it</B>: This Chapter gives an account of <A HREF = "../../../Authors/B/Author_Baker (Lynne Rudder).htm">Lynne Rudder Baker</A> s thesis that human persons are not identical to human animals, but are  temporarily at least  constituted by them. </li><li><B>Arguments against Animalism</B>: A discussion of the arguments against animalism, as given by those of anti-animalist persuasion and defended by the principal animalists (with a focus on Olson), with a critique. </li><li><B>Arguments against the Constitution View</B>: A discussion of the arguments against the Constitution View, focusing on the principal animalists, with a critique. In particular, I intend to critique Olson s <a name="28"></a><U> thinking animal argument</U><SUP>16</SUP> against the Constitution View (though I think this argument is unnecessary for Olson to establish the case for Animalism).</li><li><B>Thought Experiments</B>: Any account of personal identity needs to give an account of what is going on in the various thought experiments that have been thought relevant to the topic. It s also the area that s most fun. Indeed, I think that the entire Thesis will be an exercise in inference to the best explanation. It needs to account for our intuitions (if there is a universal response) or explain them away as confused. I will firstly briefly consider the propriety of using thought experiments in this domain of enquiry, and then consider the usual suspects, such as: <ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a><U>Fission</U><SUP>17</SUP>, <a name="28"></a><U>fusion</U><SUP>18</SUP> and <a name="28"></a><U>replication</U><SUP>19</SUP> in general</li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Commissurotomy</U><SUP>20</SUP></li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Multiple Personality Disorder</U><SUP>21</SUP></li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Brain-state Transfer</U><SUP>22</SUP></li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Brain Transplants</U><SUP>23</SUP></li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Teletransportation</U><SUP>24</SUP></li><li><a name="28"></a><U>Siliconisation</U><SUP>25</SUP></li><li>Etc?</li></ul></li><li><B>Resurrection</B>: If mind-body substance dualism is false, and we are identical to human animals, then the only possibility for post-mortem existence is some form of bodily resurrection. Since the body is destroyed at death, it would seem that any resurrected individual could only be a copy of the original. It might think of itself as the resurrected pre-mortem individual, but it would be wrong. Consideration of arguments by <A HREF = "../../../Authors/V/Author_Van Inwagen (Peter).htm">Peter Van Inwagen</A> in this respect. This chapter is likely to be controversial, so needs to be very carefully argued, and factually correct concerning what is actually believed by intellectually Christians and Muslims (unlike what seems to be the case with most swipes against religion). Maybe I should also cover reincarnation. </li><li><B>Conclusion</B>: Brief summary of the above; <ul type="disc"><li>We are human animals, </li><li>Human persons fall under phase sortals of the concept HUMAN ANIMAL,</li><li>The person is inseparable from the animal, </li><li>The animal is utterly destroyed at death, </li><li>Substance dualism is false, and </li><li>Consequently (given the sort of thing we are) resurrection or any other post-mortem survival is impossible for us. </li></ul></li></ol><FONT COLOR = "000000"></P><B>Note last updated:</B> 24/04/2018 00:12:58<BR> </P><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 1: (Thesis - Chapter 01 (Introduction))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>The Thesis seems to fall naturally into three sections (other than this Introduction and the Conclusion); namely, <ol type="1"><li>Setting up the problem (Chapters 2-5), </li><li>Olson and Baker s views contrasted (Chapters 6-9); and </li><li>Testing the preferred solution (Chapters 10-11). </li></ol></li><li>Consequently, I intend my Thesis to have the following chapters:- <ol type="1"><li>Chapter 01: Introduction</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 02: What are We?</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 03: What is a Person?</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 04: Basic Metaphysical Issues</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 05: Persistence and Time</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 06: Animalism and Arguments for It</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 07: The Constitution View and Arguments for It</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 08: Arguments against Animalism</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 09: Arguments against the Constitution View</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 10: Thought Experiments</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 11: Resurrection</li><li><a name="28"></a>Chapter 12: Conclusion</li></ol></li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a>Follow this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages. </li><li><a name="28"></a>Follow this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks.</li><li>The methodology for this Chapter differs somewhat from most other Chapters in that there is little real work, other than background reading and checking that the Thesis as a whole hangs together. </li><li>However, I do need to record while reading the general surveys anything that needs to go into the Historical Survey or Motivating Statement. </li><li>Another couple of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_14"> clearing up tasks</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_14"></A> specific to this Chapter are:- <ol type="1"><li>To ensure that all the Papers on Identity that I have actually read are referenced <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_15">somewhere</A></U><SUB>15</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_15"></A> in this Thesis. </li><li>To ensure that all the Notes on Identity that I have actually produced are referenced <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_16">somewhere</A></U><SUB>16</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_16"></A> in this Thesis.</li></ol> </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><b><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_17">Motivating Statement</A></U><SUB>17</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_17"></A></b></u> <ol type="1"><li>Why should we care about the topic of personal identity and the possibility of life after death? Put this way, the question hardly needs answering, as it s just about the most important question to be posed by a reflective (if selfish) person. Yet, the question is difficult, and has had many attempted solutions offered  and while some philosophers think there is no problem left to solve, there is no consensus as to the answer. </li><li>My favourite solution  in the sense of the one I think most likely to be correct, rather than necessary the one I d like to be correct  namely Animalism  that we are human animals and that consequently death is the end of us  is only supported by around 17% of philosophers, according to a recent <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_18">poll</A></U><SUB>18</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_18"></A> with about twice as many supporting some form of psychological view. </li><li>In one sense it is just obvious that we are  in some sense of that weasel word  human animals. But then the problem cases kick in  whether real-life or thought experiments that may never be real-life possibilities. </li><li>About 36% of the respondents in the aforementioned survey though we could survive teletransportation  though 31% thought that the result would be death. </li><li>Transhumanists think we can be uploaded to computers. </li><li>Further detail <a name="28"></a>to be supplied. </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>For convenience, brief abstracts (as currently intended) of the above chapters are given below. I have included on-going hyperlinks from the above links to my initial thoughts on these topics (and to reading lists and plans for further research) by way of further clarification. The reading lists are rather full, and I ll need to whittle them down to those I actually intend to read (and, better, address). </li><li><B>Chapter Abstracts</B><ol type="1"><li><B>Introduction</B>: See above for a motivating statement and below for a brief historical general survey of the topic of Personal Identity. </li><li><B><a name="28"></a>What are We</B>: The topic  personal identity has historically presupposed that we are (in the sense of  identical to , or  most fundamentally ) persons, whereas I (along with other animalists) claim that we are identical to human animals.  We requires explanation. This chapter will sort out the topic of discussion for the Thesis as a whole. </li><li><B><a name="28"></a>What is a Person?</B>: This chapter will canvass the various views and consider how important issues in this area are to my main concern of our identity. </li><li><B><a name="28"></a>Basic Metaphysical Issues</B>: Substances and sortals are central to the persistence of anything, and in particular to my claim that persons are phase sortals of human animals (the substances). I need to address the concept of a SOUL as souls are the major counter-claim to the persisting entity being an animal; or at least popularly so. The question of Natural Kinds arises in considering whether PERSON is a natural kind concept. </li><li><B><a name="28"></a>Persistence and Time</B>: A number of thought experiments that feature in Chapter 10 seem to fail if perdurantism is true (because the reduplication objections fail). Depending on whether any of these are critical to my arguments, I may need to consider the impact of perdurantism. But this complex area may be a step too far within a fairly limited word-count. I m also unsure whether it should feature before or after the account of Thought Experiments. </li><li><B><a name="28"></a>Animalism and Arguments for it</B>: This Chapter describes what Animalism is, with an excursus on animals and organisms and their persistence. It puts forward the arguments in favour of animalism, those against being reserved for a later Chapter. It focuses on the account of <A HREF = "../../../Authors/O/Author_Olson (Eric).htm">Eric Olson</A>, the primary contemporary exponent of Animalism. </li><li><B><a name="28"></a>The Constitution View and Arguments for it</B>: This Chapter gives an account of <A HREF = "../../../Authors/B/Author_Baker (Lynne Rudder).htm">Lynne Rudder Baker</A> s thesis that human persons are not identical to human animals, but are  temporarily at least  constituted by them. </li><li><B><a name="28"></a>Arguments against Animalism</B>: A discussion of the arguments against animalism, as given by those of anti-animalist persuasion and defended by the principal animalists (with a focus on Olson), with a critique. </li><li><B><a name="28"></a>Arguments against the Constitution View</B>: A discussion of the arguments against the Constitution View, focusing on the principal animalists, with a critique. In particular, I intend to critique <a name="28"></a>Olson s  thinking animal argument against the Constitution View (though I think this argument is unnecessary for Olson to establish the case for Animalism).</li><li><B><a name="28"></a>Thought Experiments</B>: Any account of personal identity needs to give an account of what is going on in the various thought experiments that have been thought relevant to the topic. It s also the area that s most fun. Indeed, I think that the entire Thesis will be an exercise in inference to the best explanation. It needs to account for our intuitions (if there is a universal response) or explain them away as confused. I will firstly briefly consider the propriety of using thought experiments in this domain of enquiry, and then consider the usual suspects, including the following:- <ul type="square"><li>Fission</li><li>Fusion</li><li>Replication</li><li>Commissurotomy</li><li>Multiple Personality Disorder</li><li>Brain-state Transfer</li><li>Brain Transplants</li><li>Teletransportation</li><li>Siliconisation</li><li>Transhumanism </li></ul></li><li><B><a name="28"></a>Resurrection</B>: If mind-body substance dualism is false, and we are identical to human animals, then the only possibility for post-mortem existence is some form of bodily resurrection. Since the body is destroyed at death, it would seem that any resurrected individual could only be a copy of the original. It might think of itself as the resurrected pre-mortem individual, but it would be wrong. Consideration of arguments by <A HREF = "../../../Authors/V/Author_Van Inwagen (Peter).htm">Peter Van Inwagen</A> in this respect. This chapter is likely to be controversial, so needs to be very carefully argued, and factually correct concerning what is actually believed by intellectually-aware Christians and Muslims (unlike what seems to be the case with most swipes against religion). Maybe I should also cover reincarnation. </li><li><B><a name="28"></a>Conclusion</B>: <ul type="square"><li>We are human animals, </li><li>Human persons fall under phase sortals of the concept HUMAN ANIMAL,</li><li>The person is inseparable from the animal, </li><li>The animal is utterly destroyed at death, </li><li>Substance dualism is false, and </li><li>Consequently (given the sort of thing we are) resurrection or any other post-mortem survival is impossible for us. </li></ul> </li></ol> </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><b><u>Brief historical general survey of the topic of Personal Identity</b></u> <ol type="1"><li><a name="28"></a>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_33">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>33</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_33"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going.</li><li>The purpose of this Chapter is to introduce and motivate the Thesis. As such, I need to situate it in the history of the topic. This is done in a number of introductory books, General Surveys, or collections of Papers that are standard fodder in courses on Personal Identity. </li><li>Consequently, I will review the various Surveys of Personal Identity that feature in the standard reading lists, both to demonstrate that I ve read them, and to ensure I ve missed nothing major. </li><li>If a Paper in a Collection or Chapter in an Introduction is specific to a later Chapter in this Thesis, its consideration may be reserved until a later Chapter, even if the Book itself is not. These will be noted in due course. </li><li>As the topic of Personal Identity stems primarily from Locke s account, I need a brief statement of what this is. Most of the relevant material will appear in due course in the anthologies, but I few items not anthologised are listed below. </li><li>Other works were considered and either cut or reserved for later, as indicated below. The easiest way to see all the works considered is via the reading list at the end of this Note. </li><li><b>Introductory or General Books</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_564.htm">Baillie (James) - Problems in Personal Identity</A>", Baillie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_565.htm">Berglund (Stefan) - Human and Personal Identity</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_34">Berglund</A></U><SUB>34</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_34"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_566.htm">Bourgeois (Warren) - Persons: What Philosophers Say about You</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_35">Bourgeois</A></U><SUB>35</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_35"></A>.</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6305.htm">Funkhouser (Eric) - Metaphysics, Spring 2014</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_36">Funkhouser</A></U><SUB>36</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_36"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_97.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Personal Identity and Self-consciousness</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_126.htm">Merricks (Trenton) - Objects and Persons</A>", Merricks </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_40.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Personal Identity</A>", Noonan </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15899.htm">Papineau (David) - Research Seminar on Personal Identity</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_37">Papineau</A></U><SUB>37</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_37"></A> </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3382.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Ethics: A Brief Introduction</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_38">Shoemaker_D</A></U><SUB>38</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_38"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4064.htm">Thomas (Janice L.) - Mind and Person in the Philosophy of Religion</A>", Thomas </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1417.htm">Tye (Michael) - Consciousness and Persons: Unity and Identity</A>", Tye </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_156.htm">Unger (Peter) - Identity, Consciousness and Value</A>", Unger<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11983.htm">Unger (Peter) - Precis of 'Identity, Consciousness and Value'</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_39">Unger</A></U><SUB>39</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_39"></A></li></ul></li><li><b>Standard Collections</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_576.htm">Harris (Henry) - Identity - Essays Based on Herbert Spencer Lectures Given in the University of Oxford</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_40">Harris</A></U><SUB>40</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_40"></A> </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_636.htm">Kolak (Daniel) & Martin (Raymond), Eds. - Self and Identity: Contemporary Philosophical Issues</A>", Kolak&Martin </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_121.htm">Martin (Raymond) & Barresi (John), Eds. - Personal Identity</A>", Martin&Barresi</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_648.htm">Noonan (Harold), Ed. - Personal Identity (Readings)</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1415.htm">Paul (Ellen), Miller (Fred) & Paul (Jeffrey), Eds. - Personal Identity</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_41">Paul&Miller</A></U><SUB>41</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_41"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_137.htm">Perry (John), Ed. - Personal Identity</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_46.htm">Rorty (Amelie), Ed. - The Identities of Persons</A>", Rorty </li></ul> </li><li><b>Locke</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_29.htm">Ayers (Michael R.) - Locke (Vol 2 - Ontology)</A>", Part III (Identity), Ayers</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5554.htm">Jolley (Nicholas) - Personal Identity</A>", Jolley</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5555.htm">Locke (John) - Of Identity and Diversity</A>", Locke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3962.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Locke: Identity</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3728.htm">Mackie (J.L.) - Identity and Diversity</A>", Mackie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3729.htm">Mackie (J.L.) - Personal Identity</A>", Mackie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3964.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Locke</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_405.htm">Rovane (Carol) - The Bounds of Agency: An Essay in Revisionary Metaphysics</A>", Rovane</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2409.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Persons and Their Pasts</A>", Shoemaker_S</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2095.htm">Winkler (Kenneth) - Locke on Personal Identity</A>", Winkler </li></ul></li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u><ol type="1"><li>Various works were considered for this Chapter, but were either reserved for consideration in other Chapters, or were rejected, at least for the time being.</li><li><b>Priority Works to be read later for other Chapters</b>:- <ul type="disc"><li>For <a name="28"></a>Chapter 03: <ul type="square"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_646.htm">Margolis (Joseph) - Persons and Minds: Prospects of Nonreductive Materialism</A>", Margolis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_650.htm">Peacocke (Arthur) & Gillett (Grant) - Persons and Personality: A Contemporary Inquiry</A>", Peacocke+Gillett </li></ul></li><li>For <a name="28"></a>Chapter 04<ul type="square"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_32.htm">Hirsch (Eli) - The Concept of Identity</A>", Hirsch</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_639.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - The Possibility of Metaphysics: Substance, Identity and Time</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_640.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Kinds of Being: Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1427.htm">MacBride (Fraser), Ed. - Identity and Modality</A>", MacBride</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_647.htm">Noonan (Harold), Ed. - Identity</A>", Noonan </li></ul></li><li>For <a name="28"></a>Chapter 05: <ul type="square"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1390.htm">Haslanger (Sally) & Kurtz (Roxanne), Eds. - Persistence : Contemporary Readings</A>", Haslanger&Kurtz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1345.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - How Things Persist</A>", Hawley</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_31.htm">Heller (Mark) - The Ontology of Physical Objects: Four-Dimensional Hunks of Matter</A>", Heller</li></ul></li><li>For <a name="28"></a>Chapter 07: <ul type="square"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_45.htm">Rea (Michael), Ed. - Material Constitution - A Reader</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_46">Rea</A></U><SUB>46</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_46"></A> </li></ul></li><li>I have largely ignored the many works by <A HREF = "../../../Authors/B/Author_Baker (Lynne Rudder).htm">Lynne Rudder Baker</A> and <A HREF = "../../../Authors/O/Author_Olson (Eric).htm">Eric Olson</A> in this Chapter, as they feature heavily later in the Thesis. </li></ul></li><li><b>Secondary Works to be  parked for the time being</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_654.htm">Reuscher (John) - Essays on the Metaphysical Foundations of Personal Identity</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_47">Reuscher</A></U><SUB>47</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_47"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1176.htm">Slors (Marc) - Personal Identity and the Metaphysics of Mind</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_48">Slors</A></U><SUB>48</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_48"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_657.htm">Slors (Marc) - The Diachronic Mind: An Essay on Personal Identity, Psychological Continuity and the Mind-Body Problem</A>", Slors</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_659.htm">Trupp (Andreas) - Why We Are Not What We Think We Are: A New Approach to the Nature of Personal Identity and of Time</A>", Trupp</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_660.htm">Vesey (Godfrey N.A.) - Personal Identity: A Philosophical Analysis</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_755_49">Vesey</A></U><SUB>49</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_755_49"></A> </li></ul></li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Links to Notes</u></b><ol type="1"><li><a name="28"></a>General Surveys,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Locke, </li><li>Maybe others (to be supplied). </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_755_14"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 14</B>: These will be left until all Chapters have completed Task 7. <a name="On-Page_Link_755_15"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 15</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This may either be  as utilised or  as ignored . </li><li>Follow <a href="../../../PaperCatalogIdentityRead.htm">this link</a>.</li><li>As of mid-Oct 2014, this task is now complete! </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_755_16"></A><B>Footnote 16</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This may either be  as utilised or  as ignored . </li><li>Follow <a href="../../Notes_Jump_1.htm">this link</a> . </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_755_17"></A><B>Footnote 17</B>: This will explain why I ve undertaken this research, and encourage the reader to continue.<a name="On-Page_Link_755_18"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 18</B>: <ul type="disc"><li><em>The PhilPapers Surveys</em>, Bourget, D. & Chalmers, D. (2009)  (<A HREF = "https://philpapers.org/surveys/results.pl" TARGET = "_top">Link</A> (https://philpapers.org/surveys/results.pl)). </li><li>As referenced in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19916.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Nature of People</A>". </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_755_33"></A><B>Footnote 33</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_755_34"></A><B>Footnote 34</B>: As this is a PhD Thesis in my general subject-area, I ought at least to have read it!<a name="On-Page_Link_755_35"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 35</B>: Somewhat elementary, but worth (re-)reading quickly<a name="On-Page_Link_755_36"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 36</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is a course of lectures on Metaphysics, at the advanced undergraduate / beginning graduate level. </li><li>All the issues raised  in the discussion of standard papers  many of them covered elsewhere in my Thesis  are useful background. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_755_37"></A><B>Footnote 37</B>: This is a set of papers for discussion in a research seminar. Most are probably covered elsewhere, but in case not & <a name="On-Page_Link_755_38"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 38</B>: For a review, see "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15820.htm">Lerner (Berel Dov) - Review of 'Personal Identity and Ethics: A Brief Introduction' by David Shoemaker</A>". <a name="On-Page_Link_755_39"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 39</B>: Decide where to park the various Chapters of this book after reading the prcis. <a name="On-Page_Link_755_40"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 40</B>: Harris is an interesting case, in that it includes three important papers and three that are off-topic, but important in illustrating the divergent usages of the term  identity . <a name="On-Page_Link_755_41"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 41</B>: This is more recent than the others.<a name="On-Page_Link_755_46"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 46</B>: But note that Baker s account of constitution differs from the mereological account assumed in Rea s anthology. <a name="On-Page_Link_755_47"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 47</B>: The works by Reuscher and Trupp are too eccentric to be given any priority. <a name="On-Page_Link_755_48"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 48</B>: The works by Slors may be worth reading as a fairly contemporary defence of the psychological view; just not yet. <a name="On-Page_Link_755_49"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 49</B>: The work by Vesey is too out of date for a priority item. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 24/04/2018 00:12:58<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 2: (Thesis - Chapter 02 (What are We?))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b><ol type="1"><li>The topic  personal identity has historically presupposed that we are (in the sense of  identical to , or  most fundamentally ) <u>persons</u>, whereas I (along with other animalists) claim that we are identical to human <u>animals</u>. </li><li> We requires explanation. This chapter attempts to sort out the topic of discussion for the Thesis as a whole. </li><li>I need to address the concept of a SOUL as souls are the major counter-claim to the persisting entity being an animal; or at least popularly so. The same goes for SELVES, and also for HUMAN BEINGS, insofar as these are supposed to be distinct from HUMAN ANIMALs. </li><li>I also need to have some discussion of what is meant by the various other possibilities of <a name="28"></a>what we are, but leave explications of PERSONs, BODIES and ANIMALs / ORGANISMs until later Chapters. </li><li>I m not quite sure where the possibility that we are BRAINs ought to go, but for the time being it s here; and this leads on to the possibility (tacitly assumed in some TEs) that we might be individual CEREBRA. </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages. </li><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks.</li><li>Progress on this Chapter is unusual in that it was the sample Chapter on which I was working with my Supervisor when registered for the PhD at Birkbeck. </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Chapter Introduction</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This Chapter has the title  <a name="28"></a>What Are We? . The  We is of some significance, as we will see in the course of this Thesis when we consider the social and reciprocal aspects of what it is to be a person. Nonetheless, should we not start with the singular, maybe even solipsist, question  <a name="28"></a>What Am I? , and expand out from there into the collective question? How we phrase our initial question has an impact on the course of our investigations, and may reflect our deepest presuppositions. The first-person question adopts the Cartesian stance of looking from the inside out, whereas the third-person question considers  us collectively. The first-person question may presuppose that the answer to the question is that I am primarily a psychological being, whereas the third-person question may assume or expect the answer that I am fundamentally physical. </li><li>Some of the potential answers to the question will be the same whether we phrase the question in the singular or the plural. </li><li>Taking it in the plural for now, we need to distinguish, as candidates for what we might be on the physical side, (prefixing  human- passim):- <ul type="disc"><li>Animals, </li><li>Organisms, </li><li>Bodies, </li><li>Beings, and </li><li>Brains. </li></ul></li><li>On the psychological side, I might be a self or, more popularly, a person. I might even be a non-essentially-embodied entity like a soul. </li><li>I will consider all these options in due course; with the exception of a detailed discussion of the concept PERSON (which is reserved for the next <a name="28"></a>Chapter), I will do so later in this chapter. </li><li><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_7">Olson</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_7"></A> also considers whether we might be Humean bundles of mental states and events, and even the nihilist view that we don t exist at all. I m not sure I ll have space for these, but need to remain aware of the possibilities and motivations for these positions. </li><li>However, for the moment I want to consider some themes connecting the possible answers to our question. Firstly, does there have to be a single answer? I know that I, and presume that my readers also, fall happily under the concepts HUMAN ANIMAL, HUMAN ORGANISM and HUMAN BEING. I at least <u>have</u> a human body and a human brain, though I would initially feel reluctant to say that I <u>am</u> one of either of these things. I would certainly claim to be a SELF, and also a PERSON, as no doubt would my reader. So, cannot all these answers be correct?</li><li>This raises the question of what I mean by saying what I <em>am</em> (or we <em>are</em>) something. In saying that I <em>am</em> any of these things, what sort of relation is the  am ? Am I using <em>am</em> in the sense of an identity relation, a constitution relation, ascribing a predicate, or have some other sense in mind? </li><li>There are two kinds of questions I want to ask. Firstly, what sort of being am I identical to? Secondly, what sort of properties do I have; both metaphysically essential properties (those without which I would cease to exist), and those I merely <em>consider</em> essential (that is,  very important , though I would continue to exist without them)? </li><li>Any  is that does duty for the identity relation inherits the formal properties of an equivalence relation; in particular, it is a transitive relation. Additionally, the  two identical entities either side of the copula must satisfy Leibniz s law;  they share (at a time) all their properties; actual and modal, intrinsic and relational. So, if I am identical to a human animal, and also identical to a human person, then that human animal must be identical to that human person. This would mean that these  two entities are really one. They co-exist at all times in all possible worlds where either of  them exists, and share all their properties and relations, at any time and world. Everything that happens to  one at a world and time happens to the  other at those coordinates. This places strong logical constraints on how much cake I can have and eat. I may want to say that I am identical both to a human animal, and to a human person, yet claim that a human person has certain mental properties essentially, but deny that a human animal does. However, I am then claiming what is logically impossible, at least for the classical logic of identity that denies that such notions as relative identity are coherent. As we will see, this point is essential to the animalist case that we are <I>not</I> identical to human persons (given the claim that we <I>are</I> identical to human animals). </li><li>My thesis addresses the topic of <I>personal</I> identity, but we might claim that what we re really interested in is in <I>our</I> identity. Not that we have doubts as individuals as to which particular individual we are (as though I, as Bill Clinton, don t know whether I am Bill Clinton or George W. Bush), but what <I>sort</I> of individual we are, together with worries about our persistence (how long we are going to last, and in what form). Historically, it has been a standard presupposition that <a name="28"></a>what we are most fundamentally is <I>persons</I>, or at least that s all we care about. So, concern about <I>our</I> identity has been elided with concern for <I>personal</I> identity, almost as though we thought that the two questions are the same. Animalists argue that the two questions are indeed different, but for convenience, and the historical continuity of the general topic under discussion, still say they are talking about <I>personal identity</I>. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_9">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_9"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>For this Chapter I have already worked on the various papers or book chapters under supervisory control. Where this is the case, for ease of reference, the analytical Note for each reference is hyperlinked directly.</li><li>Additionally, I may need to consider other papers or book chapters in the following lists (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going. Some that I have considered have been culled or reserved for later. </li><li><b>The General Question</b>:- <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3803.htm">Baillie (James) - What Am I?</A>". See Note <a name="28"></a>(Draft, <a name="28"></a>Review Comments). Baillie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4282.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - What Am I?</A>". See Note <a name="28"></a>(Draft, <a name="28"></a>Review Comments). Baker.</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12473.htm">Brandom (Robert) - Toward a Normative Pragmatics</A>", sections I:1-3. See Note <a name="28"></a>(Draft, <a name="28"></a>Review Comments). <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_16">Brandom</A></U><SUB>16</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_16"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1790.htm">Chisholm (Roderick) - Which Physical Thing Am I? An Excerpt from 'Is There a Mind-Body Problem?'</A>". See <a name="28"></a>(Draft, <a name="28"></a>Review Comments). <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_19">Chisholm</A></U><SUB>19</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_19"></A> </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5807.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Are we essentially persons? Olson, Baker, and a reply</A>". See <a name="28"></a>Skeleton Note, DeGrazia</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1348.htm">Lakoff (George) & Johnson (Mark) - Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought</A>", Lakoff&Johnson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4276.htm">Le Fanu (James) - Why Us? How Science Rediscovered the Mystery of Ourselves</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_21">LeFanu</A></U><SUB>21</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_21"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19916.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Nature of People</A>". Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12470.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We?</A>". See Note <a name="28"></a>(Draft, Review Comments  <a name="28"></a>First Half, <a name="28"></a>Second Half). Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2710.htm">Olson (Eric) - What are We?</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_25">Olson</A></U><SUB>25</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_25"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_26">expecially</A></U><SUB>26</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_26"></A> & <ul type="square"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12010.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? The Question</A>". See <a name="28"></a>Skeleton Note, & </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12018.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? What Now?</A>". See <a name="28"></a>Skeleton Note. </li></ul></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3572.htm">Parfit (Derek) - What We Believe Ourselves To Be</A>". See <a name="28"></a>Skeleton Note. Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20277.htm">Pollock (John L.) - What Am I? Virtual Machines and the Mind/Body Problem</A>", Pollock </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2762.htm">Porter (Roy) - Flesh in the Age of Reason - The Modern Foundations of Body and Soul</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_30">Porter</A></U><SUB>30</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_30"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_551.htm">Rorty (Amlie Oksenberg) - Characters, Persons, Selves, Individuals</A>", Rorty </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1792.htm">Swinburne (Richard) - Personal Identity: The Dualist Theory</A>". See <a name="28"></a>Skeleton Note, Swinburne. </li></ul></li><li><b>Brains / Cerebra</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6024.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Persons and their Brains</A>", Brennan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5249.htm">Green (Michael) & Wikler (Daniel) - Brain Death and Personal Identity</A>", Green&Wikler</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5910.htm">Lockwood (Michael) - When Does a Life Begin?</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_32">Lockwood</A></U><SUB>32</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_32"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20079.htm">Murphy (Nancey) - I Cerebrate Myself: Is there a little man inside your brain?</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_33">Murphy</A></U><SUB>33</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_33"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3602.htm">Noe (Alva) - Out of Our Heads: Why You Are Not Your Brain, and Other Lessons from the Biology of Consciousness</A>", Noe<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15413.htm">Manninen (Tuomas) - Review of Alva Noe's 'Out of Our Heads: Why You Are Not Your Brain'</A>", Manninen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12013.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Brains</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6028.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Brain Transplants and Personal Identity</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_34">Puccetti</A></U><SUB>34</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_34"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6029.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Mr. Brennan on Person's Brains</A>", Puccetti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3688.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Two Brains, Two Minds? Wigan's Theory of Mental Duality</A>", Puccetti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20197.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - The Conquest of Death</A>", Puccetti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5339.htm">Robinson (Daniel) - What Sort of Persons Are Hemispheres? Another Look at 'Split-Brain' Man</A>", Robinson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5064.htm">Steineck (Christian) - Brain Death, Death, and Personal Identity</A>", Steineck</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5094.htm">Steinhart (Eric) - Persons Versus Brains: Biological Intelligence in Human Organisms</A>", Steinhart</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16759.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Plantinga s Replacement Argument</A>", Van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1418.htm">Wilkerson (T.E.) - Minds, Brains and People</A>", Wilkerson</li></ul></li><li><b>Neurological Background</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1169.htm">Andrewes (David) - Neuropsychology: From Theory to Practice</A>", Andrewes</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1165.htm">Bear (Mark), Connors (Barry) & Paradiso (Michael) - Neuroscience</A>", Bear&Connors&Paradiso</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1163.htm">Bennett (M.R.) & Hacker (P.M.S.) - Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience</A>", Bennett&Hacker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1357.htm">DeMyer (William) - Neuroanatomy</A>", DeMyer</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1340.htm">Churchland (Patricia) - Brain-wise: Studies in Neurophilosophy</A>", Churchland</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_191.htm">Churchland (Patricia) - Neurophilosophy - Towards a Unified Science of the Mind/Brain</A>", Churchland</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_212.htm">Graham (George) & Stephens (G. Lynn) - Philosophical Psychopathology</A>", Graham&Stephens</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_653.htm">Restak (Richard) - The Modular Brain</A>", Restak</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2921.htm">Russell (Robert John), Murphy (Nancey), Meyering (Theo C.), Arbib (Michael A.) - Neuroscience and the Person</A>", Russell etc.</li></ul></li><li><b>Human Beings</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5239.htm">Becker (Lawrence) - Human Being: The Boundaries of the Concept</A>", Becker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_571.htm">Cockburn (David), Ed. - Human Beings</A>", Cockburn</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2629.htm">Graham (Gordon) - Review of David Cockburn's 'Human Beings'</A>", Graham</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>". See <a name="28"></a>Skeleton Note, Johnston. </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18375.htm">Johnston (Mark) - 'Human Beings' Revisited: My Body is Not an Animal</A>", Johnston</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7825.htm">Oderberg (David) - Johnston on Human Beings</A>", Oderberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20709.htm">Parfit (Derek) - We Are Not Human Beings</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18374.htm">Robinson (Denis) - Human Beings, Human Animals, and Mentalistic Survival</A>", Robinson </li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_36">Selves</A></U><SUB>36</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_36"></A></b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1382.htm">Alexander (Ronald) - The Self, Supervenience and Personal Identity</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_37">Alexander</A></U><SUB>37</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_37"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_13/Abstract_13015.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Fragmented Selves and the Problem of Ownership</A>", Brennan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1174.htm">Campbell (John) - Past, Space and Self</A>", Campbell</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7463.htm">Cassam (Quassim) - Kant and Reductionism</A>", Cassam</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1333.htm">Cassam (Quassim) - Self and World</A>", Cassam</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5275.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - The Self as a Center of Narrative Gravity</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5084.htm">Churchland (Patricia) - Self and Self-Knowledge</A>", Churchland</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5288.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - The Reality of Selves</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1402.htm">Feinberg (Todd) - Altered Egos: How the Brain Creates the Self</A>", Feinberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_574.htm">Gallagher (Shaun) & Shear (Jonathan), Eds. - Models of the Self</A>", Gallagher</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2664.htm">Harre (Rom) - Persons and Selves</A>", Harre</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15601.htm">Jenkins (Phil) - Review of Galen Strawson's 'Selves'</A>", Jenkins</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6416.htm">Korsgaard (Christine) - Self-Constitution: Agency, Identity, and Integrity</A>", Korsgaard</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5200.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Substance and Selfhood</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_642.htm">Ludwig (Arnold) - How do we Know who we are? A Biography of the Self</A>", Ludwig</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_645.htm">Madell (Geoffrey) - The Identity of the Self</A>", Madell</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_120.htm">Martin (Raymond) - Self-Concern: An Experiential Approach to what Matters in Survival</A>", Martin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4161.htm">McGinn (Colin) - The Self</A>", McGinn</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6403.htm">Metzinger (Thomas) - Being No One: The Self-Model Theory of Subjectivity</A>", Metzinger</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3601.htm">Metzinger (Thomas) - The Ego Tunnel: The Science of the Mind and the Myth of the Self</A>", Metzinger<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15417.htm">Godelek (Kamuran) - Review of Thomas Metzinger's 'The Ego Tunnel: The Science of the Mind and the Myth of the Self'</A>", Godelek</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3635.htm">Nagel (Thomas) - Mind and Body</A>", Nagel</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_00/PaperSummary_192.htm">Nagel (Thomas) - Subjective and Objective</A>", Nagel</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3636.htm">Nagel (Thomas) - The Objective Self</A>", Nagel</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9179.htm">Perry (John) - The Self</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_656.htm">Schechtman (Marya) - The Constitution of Selves</A>", Schechtman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_577.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Self-Knowledge and Self-Identity</A>", Shoemaker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_561.htm">Strawson (Galen) - The Self</A>", Strawson_G</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2759.htm">Valberg (J.J.) - Dream, Death, and the Self</A>", Valberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5152.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - The Self: the Incredulous Stare Articulated</A>", Van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_160.htm">Williams (Bernard) - Problems of the Self</A>", Williams</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5174.htm">Wolf (Susan) - Self-Interest and Interest in Selves</A>", Wolf</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4732.htm">Wright (Crispin) - The Problem of Self-Knowledge (I)</A>", Wright </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3603.htm">Zahavi (Dan) - Subjectivity and Selfhood: Investigating the First-Person Perspective</A>", Zahavi</li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_38">Souls</A></U><SUB>38</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_38"></A></b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_170.htm">Blackmore (Susan) - Beyond the Body</A>", Blackmore</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2664.htm">Brown (Warren), Murphy (Nancey) & Malony (H. Newton), Eds. - Whatever Happened to the Soul: Scientific and Theological Portraits of Human Nature</A>", Brown</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_08/PaperSummary_8313.htm">Chisholm (Roderick) - On the Simplicity of the Soul</A>", Chisholm</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16126.htm">Chopra (Deepak) & Hameroff (Stuart) - Can science explain the soul?</A>", Chopra&Hameroff</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2304.htm">Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting: Biblical Anthropology and the Monism-dualism Debate</A>", Cooper</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1383.htm">Corcoran (Kevin), Ed. - Soul, Body and Survival: Essays on the Metaphysics of Human Persons</A>", Corcoran</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_79.htm">Crabbe (James), Ed. - From Soul to Self</A>", Crabbe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3526.htm">Carruthers (Peter) - Identity and the Soul (Mind)</A>", Carruthers</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16622.htm">Geach (Peter) - God and the Soul (Analytical ToC)</A>", Geach</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8314.htm">Hoffman (Joshua) & Rosenkrantz (Gary) - Are Souls Unintelligible?</A>", Hoffman&Rosenkrantz </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_127.htm">Moreland (J.P.) & Rae (Scott) - Body & Soul - Human Nature and the Crisis in Ethics</A>", Moreland&Rae</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2888.htm">Murphy (Nancey) - Bodies and Souls, or Spirited Bodies?</A>", Murphy</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12016.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Souls</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_13/Abstract_13229.htm">Peters (Ted) - Resurrection of the Very Embodied Soul?</A>", Peters</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_534.htm">Quinton (Anthony) - The Soul</A>", Quinton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5303.htm">Rosenberg (Jay) - Bodies and Souls I - The Limits of Theorizing</A>", Rosenberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2007.htm">Sosa (Ernest) - Subjects Among Other Things</A>", Sosa</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1143.htm">Swinburne (Richard) - The Evolution of the Soul</A>", Swinburne</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11941.htm">Unger (Peter) - Why We Really May Be Immaterial Souls</A>", Unger</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17107.htm">Wright (N.T.) - Mind, Spirit, Soul and Body: All for One and One for All - Reflections on Paul s Anthropology in his Complex Contexts</A>", Wright </li></ul></li><li><b>Nihilism</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3913.htm">Merricks (Trenton) - Considerations in Favour of Eliminativism</A>", Merricks</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3916.htm">Merricks (Trenton) - Considerations in Favour of Eliminating Us?</A>", Merricks </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1375.htm">Unger (Peter) - I Do Not Exist</A>", Unger</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1006.htm">Unger (Peter) - Why There Are No People</A>", Unger</li></ul></li><li>Many aspects of these papers will need to be left for later chapters. </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u> <ol type="1"><li>There had already been a lot of cutting in the various selections of the original reading list  the reading lists attached to the Notes run on and on  and these items just represent the works in my possession (though I have sought out all that I ve heard of that look relevant). </li><li>However, the items in the lists following were given some attention, and have been culled  at least temporarily  from the lists above, where they originally appeared. I ve not always given a reason as I ve not studied them sufficiently closely. But, you have to draw a line somewhere. </li><li><b>The General Question</b> <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1435.htm">Bloom (Paul) - Descartes' Baby: How Child Development Explains What Makes Us Human</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_39">Bloom</A></U><SUB>39</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_39"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_566.htm">Bourgeois (Warren) - Persons: What Philosophers Say about You</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_762_40">Bourgeois</A></U><SUB>40</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_762_40"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_13/Abstract_13016.htm">Chitty (Andrew) - First Person Plural Ontology and Praxis</A>", Chitty</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3752.htm">Doepke (Frederick) - Introduction: What Are We?</A>", Doepke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3760.htm">Doepke (Frederick) - What We Are</A>", Doepke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1365.htm">Ford (Norman) - When Did I Begin: Conception of the Human Individual in History, Philosophy and Science</A>", Ford</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1429.htm">Stevenson (Leslie) & Haberman (David) - Ten Theories of Human Nature</A>", Stevenson&Haberman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1431.htm">Trigg (Roger) - Ideas of Human Nature: An Historical Introduction</A>", Trigg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_659.htm">Trupp (Andreas) - Why We Are Not What We Think We Are: A New Approach to the Nature of Personal Identity and of Time</A>", Trupp </li></ul></li><li><b>Brains / Cerebra</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6646.htm">Campbell (Courtney S.) - A No-Brainer: Criticisms of Brain-Based Standards of Death</A>", Campbell</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_13/Abstract_13026.htm">Cockburn (David) - The Mind, the Brain and the Face</A>", Cockburn</li></ul></li><li><b>Human Beings</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6650.htm">Heyd (David) - Human Nature: An Oxymoron?</A>", Heyd</li></ul></li><li><b>Selves</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1027.htm">Bermudez (Jose Luis), Marcel (Anthony) & Eilan (Naomi), Eds. - The Body and the Self</A>", Bermudez</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5171.htm">Johnstone (Henry) - Persons and Selves</A>", Johnstone</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_139.htm">Popper (Karl) & Eccles (John) - The Self and Its Brain</A>", Popper&Eccles </li></ul></li><li><b>Souls</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4046.htm">Ward (Keith) - The Battle for the Soul</A>", Ward </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Links to Notes</u></b><ol type="1"><li> For an out-of-date skeleton giving a fuller reading list, follow this <a name="28"></a>link.</li><li>Candidates for <a name="28"></a>what we are, considered in this Chapter:- <ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a>Human Beings, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Brains, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Cerebra,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Selves,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Souls,</li><li>Others to be Supplied? </li></ul> </li><li>Candidates for <a name="28"></a>what we are, considered in later Chapters:- <ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a>Animals, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Bodies, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Organisms, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Persons,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Nihilism. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Final Remarks</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This is <a name="28"></a>work in progress. </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_762_7"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 7</B>: In "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2710.htm">Olson (Eric) - What are We?</A>" <a name="On-Page_Link_762_9"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 9</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_762_16"></A><B>Footnote 16</B>: The excerpt from Brandom raises some questions about the community we call  we . <a name="On-Page_Link_762_19"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 19</B>: Baker often expresses indebtedness to <A HREF = "../../../Authors/C/Author_Chisholm (Roderick).htm">Roderick Chisholm</A>, who is reviewed on that account.<a name="On-Page_Link_762_21"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 21</B>: An annoying book, but one I ought to study. <a name="On-Page_Link_762_25"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 25</B>: The book. From my perspective, probably the most important source for this Chapter. <a name="On-Page_Link_762_26"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 26</B>: See also the Chapters on Brains and Souls in the subsequent reading-lists. <a name="On-Page_Link_762_30"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 30</B>: Useful historical background, maybe!<a name="On-Page_Link_762_32"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 32</B>: Lockwood might deny that this is his view, but he seems committed to it, as far as I can see. <a name="On-Page_Link_762_33"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 33</B>: This maybe ought to be categorised as an  anti-soul view. <a name="On-Page_Link_762_34"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 34</B>: Some of the papers by Puccetti will be reconsidered in (or maybe reserved for  a couple already have been) <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1022.htm">Chapter 10</a>. <a name="On-Page_Link_762_36"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 36</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This list is rather long, and contains many whole books. I may have to cull several of these further down the line. </li><li>However, the Self is important, as it s the root of Baker s FPP, and the motivator for all psychological theories of PI, so understanding just what it is supposed to be is central to my concerns. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_762_37"></A><B>Footnote 37</B>: Alexander thinks that we are Selves, and that Selves are tropes  abstract particulars  which by my lights is about as far from the truth as you can get, so I need to consider his arguments carefully. <a name="On-Page_Link_762_38"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 38</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>The comment about the prolixity of the reading list applies even more to Souls than Selves, without the positive connection my primary thesis. </li><li>However, if we were to be souls, this would solve the resurrection problem; so I need to thoroughly understand the reasons why we might be  but most likely are not  souls. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_762_39"></A><B>Footnote 39</B>: This looks interesting, but is somewhat off-topic for a priority reading-list. <a name="On-Page_Link_762_40"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 40</B>: This is rather elementary, and ought to have been reviewed in <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_755.htm">Chapter 01</a>. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 24/04/2018 00:12:58<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 4: (Thesis - Chapter 03 (What is a Person?))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b><ol type="1">This chapter will canvass the various views of what Persons are and consider how important issues in this area are to my main concern of our identity. </ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a>Follow this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages. </li><li><a name="28"></a>Follow this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks. </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Chapter Introduction</u></b><ol type="1"><li>The main philosophical argument about Persons is whether PERSON is a substance-concept in its own right, or whether it is parasitic on other substance-concept(s). </li><li>My own view is that Human Persons are <a name="28"></a>phase sortals of human animals, but other philosophers have more robust views of persons and think of them as substances in their own right. </li><li>Famously, <a name="28"></a>Locke held this view, and <a name="28"></a>Lynne Rudder Baker is a contemporary exponent  her view being that human persons are <a name="28"></a>constituted by, but not identical to, human animals. </li><li>In this thesis, I m only concerned with human persons, and  like most philosophers  allow that there can be non-human persons (God, gods, angels, aliens, robots, etc.)</li><li>All this is predicated on deciding just what PERSONS are, which in turn depends somewhat on whether we take PERSON to be a natural kind concept, or something that is socially constructed and so not something the correct definition of we can discover. </li><li>Further text to be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_7">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_7"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going. <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2364.htm">Ayer (A.J.) - The Concept of a Person</A>", Ayer</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5196.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Brief Reply to Rosenkrantz's Comments on my 'The Ontological Status of Persons'</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_66.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View</A>", especially (in this context), & Baker <ul type="square"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3674.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons in the Material World</A>",</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3676.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - The First-Person Perspective</A>",</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3678.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Personal Identity Over Time</A>", and</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3679.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - The Importance Of Being a Person</A>". </li></ul></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14537.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons and the Natural Order</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5503.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons in Metaphysical Perspective</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5194.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - The Ontological Status of Persons</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6979.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - When Does a Person Begin?</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3952.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Concepts of a Person</A>", Brennan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5807.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Are we essentially persons? Olson, Baker, and a reply</A>", DeGrazia</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7438.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Great Apes, Dolphins, and the Concept of Personhood</A>", DeGrazia</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_545.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Conditions of Personhood</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1396.htm">Forrester (Mary) - Persons, Animals, and Fetuses: An Essay in Practical Ethics</A>", Forrester</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_207.htm">Frankfurt (Harry) - Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person</A>", Frankfurt</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5198.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Persons</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4940.htm">Goodenough (Jerry) - The Achievement of Personhood</A>", Goodenough</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4233.htm">Hornsby (Jennifer) - Mind, Causation and Explanation - Introduction: Personal and Subpersonal Levels</A>", Hornsby</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4222.htm">Hornsby (Jennifer) - Ontological Questions - Introduction: Persons and Their States, and Events</A>", Hornsby</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_109.htm">Hudson (Hud) - A Materialist Metaphysics of the Human Person</A>", Hudson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5661.htm">Hudson (Hud) - Temporal Parts and Moral Personhood</A>", Hudson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4922.htm">Ishiguro (Hide) - The Primitiveness of the Concept of a Person</A>", Ishiguro</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3556.htm">JCS - Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 14, Issue 05-06 (2007)</A>", JCS  Dimensions of Personhood </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1397.htm">Leiber (Justin) - Can Animals and Machines Be Persons? : A Dialogue</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_8">Leiber</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_8"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11464.htm">Longuenesse (Beatrice) - Kant on the identity of persons</A>", Longuenesse</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6698.htm">Margolis (Joseph) - Persons: Notes on Their Nature, Identity and Rationality</A>", Margolis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_646.htm">Margolis (Joseph) - Persons and Minds: Prospects of Nonreductive Materialism</A>", Margolis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1343.htm">McCall (Catherine) - Concepts of Person: An Analysis of Concepts of Person, Self and Human Being</A>", McCall</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15855.htm">McInerney (Peter K.) - Conceptions of Persons and Persons through Time</A>", McInerney</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_06/PaperSummary_6497.htm">Midgley (Mary) - Persons and Non-Persons</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_9">Midgley</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_9"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19916.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Nature of People</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1024.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_10">Parfit</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_10"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_41.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Reasons and Persons</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_11">Parfit</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_11"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_650.htm">Peacocke (Arthur) & Gillett (Grant) - Persons and Personality: A Contemporary Inquiry</A>", Peacocke&Gillett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5403.htm">Perry (John) - Personal Identity and the Concept of a Person</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1442.htm">Petrus (Klaus), Ed. - On Human Persons</A>", Petrus</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6694.htm">Plantinga (Alvin) - Things and Persons</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_12">Plantinga</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_12"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5621.htm">Pollock (John L.) - How to Build a Person: The Physical Basis of Mentality</A>", Pollock</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1338.htm">Pollock (John L.) - How to Build a Person: A Prolegomenon</A>", Pollock</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5118.htm">Poole (Ross) - On Being a Person</A>", Poole</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1349.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Persons: A Study of Possible Moral Agents in the Universe</A>", Puccetti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2921.htm">Russell (Robert John), Murphy (Nancey), Meyering (Theo C.), Arbib (Michael A.) - Neuroscience and the Person</A>", Russell etc</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5256.htm">Sapontzis (S.F.) - A Critique of Personhood</A>", Sapontzis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12306.htm">Selling (Joseph) - The Human Person</A>", Selling</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5146.htm">Shaffer (Jerome) - Persons and Their Bodies</A>", Shaffer</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15110.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Ethics - Introduction</A>", Shoemaker_D</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7450.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Persons and Personal Identity</A>", Shoemaker_S</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5258.htm">Smart (Brian) - How can Persons be Ascribed M-Predicates?</A>", Smart</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1394.htm">Sprague (Elmer) - Persons and Their Minds: A Philosophical Investigation</A>", Sprague</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5063.htm">Stanley (Jason) - Persons And Their Properties</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_13">Stanley</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_13"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16819.htm">Stone (Jim) - Why there are still no people</A>", Stone</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_164.htm">Strawson (Peter) - Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_14">Strawson</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_14"></A>, especially<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3888.htm">Strawson (Peter) - Persons</A>", Strawson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_638.htm">Strawson (Peter) - Persons</A>", Strawson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_550.htm">Taylor (Charles) - Responsibility For Self</A>", Taylor_C</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5505.htm">Taylor (Richard), Chisholm (Roderick) - Chisholm's Idea of a Person</A>", Taylor_R</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5193.htm">Teichman (Jenny) - The Definition of Person</A>", Teichman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7220.htm">Trendelenberg (Adolf) - A Contribution to the History of the Word Person</A>", Trendelenberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2928.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) & Zimmerman (Dean) - Persons: Human and Divine</A>", Van Inwagen&Zimmerman<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14454.htm">Olson (Eric) - Review of 'Persons: Human and Divine'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2661.htm">Wiggins (David) - The Person as Object of Science, as Subject of Experience, and as Locus of Value</A>", Wiggins</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1418.htm">Wilkerson (T.E.) - Minds, Brains and People</A>", Wilkerson <ul type="square"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17303.htm">Candlish (Stewart) - Review of Minds, Brains and People by T. E. Wilkerson</A>", Candlish</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17302.htm">Hinton (J.M.) - Review of Minds, Brains and People by T. E. Wilkerson</A>", Hinton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17300.htm">McGill (V.J.) - Review of Minds, Brains and People by T. E. Wilkerson</A>", McGill</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17301.htm">Strawson (Peter) - Review of Minds, Brains and People by T. E. Wilkerson</A>", Strawson </li></ul></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3665.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Real People: Preface</A>", Wilkes</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_546.htm">Williams (Bernard) - Persons, Character and Morality</A>", Williams_B</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12484.htm">Wilson (Edgar) - Two Incompatible Models of Persons</A>", Wilson </li></ul> </li><li><b>Reductionism</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6666.htm">Belzer (Marvin) - Self-Conception and Personal Identity: Revisiting Parfit and Lewis with an Eye on the Grip of the Unity Reaction</A>", Belzer</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3796.htm">Campbell (John) - The Reductionist View of the Self</A>", Campbell </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3741.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Animalism and Reductionism</A>", Garrett </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5297.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Personal Identity and Reductionism</A>", Garrett</li></ul> </li><li>Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters. </li><li>The motivation for these works is as follows:- <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u> <ol type="1"><li>There had already been a lot of cutting in the various selections of the original reading list  the reading lists attached to the Notes run on and on  and these items just represent the works in my possession (though I have sought out all that I ve heard of that look relevant). </li><li>However, the items in the lists following were given some attention, and have been culled  at least temporarily  from the lists above, where they originally appeared. I ve not always given a reason as I ve not studied them sufficiently closely. But, you have to draw a line somewhere. </li><li>I m well aware that the cut has not been sufficiently rigorous. Further items beyond the items below are likely to be culled when I come to process them. <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_566.htm">Bourgeois (Warren) - Persons: What Philosophers Say about You</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_15">Bourgeois</A></U><SUB>15</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_15"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15858.htm">Burge (Tyler) - Memory and Persons</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_16">Burge</A></U><SUB>16</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_16"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1432.htm">Carrithers (Michael), Collins (Steven) & Lukes (Steven) - The Category of the Person: Anthropology, philosophy, history</A>", Carrithers</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2636.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Real Selves: Persons as a Substantial Kind</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1015_17">Lowe</A></U><SUB>17</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1015_17"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3363.htm">Mitchell (Robert) - Humans, Nonhumans and Personhood</A>", Mitchell</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6424.htm">Park (Desiree) - Persons</A>", Park<BR> </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Links to Notes</u></b><ol type="1"><li>The primary Notes are:- <ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a>Person,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Human Persons,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Non-Human Persons,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Reductionism, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Simple View</li><li><a name="28"></a>Taking Persons Seriously,</li><li><a name="28"></a>First-Person Perspective. </li></ul></li><li>No doubt there are others:- <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Final Remarks</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This is <a name="28"></a>work in progress. </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_1015_7"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 7</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1015_8"></A><B>Footnote 8</B>: This is very elementary, but short and maybe entertaining. <a name="On-Page_Link_1015_9"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 9</B>: Read this as an example from the Animal Liberation movement. <a name="On-Page_Link_1015_10"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 10</B>: This is rather introductory to Parfit s ideas, so read it quickly for that purpose. <a name="On-Page_Link_1015_11"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 11</B>: Restrict a close reading to Part 3 (Personal Identity). <a name="On-Page_Link_1015_12"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 12</B>: May be useful both as a take on Strawson, and for Plantinga s own views. <a name="On-Page_Link_1015_13"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 13</B>: Stanley got into a debate with Jen Hornsby, though not on this topic, so it ll be interesting to see how he argues. <a name="On-Page_Link_1015_14"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 14</B>: This is a difficult book with which I expect to have little sympathy, but one that has to be read. <a name="On-Page_Link_1015_15"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 15</B>: This is rather elementary, and ought to have been reviewed in <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_755.htm">Chapter 1</a>. <a name="On-Page_Link_1015_16"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 16</B>: This paper may be important, but is too long (and difficult) for a first pass through the literature <a name="On-Page_Link_1015_17"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 17</B>: Too similar to "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5200.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Substance and Selfhood</A>", which was read for <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_762.htm">Chapter 2</a>. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 05/04/2016 23:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 5: (Thesis - Chapter 04 (Basic Metaphysical Issues))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>I need to discuss the logic of identity, survival and persistence, and even whether identity matters in survival. </li><li>Substances and sortals are central to the persistence of anything, and in particular to my claim that persons are phase sortals of human animals (the substances). </li><li>The question of Natural Kinds arises in considering whether PERSON is a natural kind concept. </li><li>Certain four-dimensional approaches to persistence do away with the substance concept, but I discuss this issue in the next Chapter. </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a>Follow this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages. </li><li><a name="28"></a>Follow this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks. </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Chapter Introduction</u></b><ol type="1"><li>The purpose of this chapter is to clarify my views on a number of logical and metaphysical issues that are central to the core of this Thesis. </li><li>I will also consider <A HREF = "../../../Authors/P/Author_Parfit (Derek).htm">Derek Parfit</A> s claim that  Identity is not what matters in survival in this Chapter. </li><li>The coverage in the Chapter itself will have to be very brief lest it consume the word-count for the entire thesis. Most information  and in particular the bulk of the justification for my views  will remain in the Notes. </li><li>Three background issues, namely my views on:- <ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a>Persistence and Time, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Thought Experiments, and</li><li><a name="28"></a>Constitution</li></ul>are covered elsewhere (follow the links above). </li><li>Other topics may be added as they arise. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1016_6">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1016_6"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going:- </li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1016_7">Basic Metaphysics</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1016_7"></A></b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4094.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Metaphysics</A>", and</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6305.htm">Funkhouser (Eric) - Metaphysics, Spring 2014</A>". </li></ul></li><li><b>Logic of Identity (General)</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6454.htm">Baylis (Charles A.) - Review Article: The Identity of Indiscernibles</A>", Baylis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_568.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Conditions of Identity</A>", Brennan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1386.htm">Brody (Baruch) - Identity and Essence</A>", Brody</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1405.htm">Butchvarov (Panayot) - Being Qua Being</A>", Butchvarov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11398.htm">Butchvarov (Panayot) - Identity</A>", Butchvarov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6538.htm">Crane (Tim) & Farkas (Katalin) - Identity: Introduction</A>", Crane&Farkas</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20299.htm">Dummett (Michael) - Identity</A>", Dummett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5197.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Personal Identity</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5297.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Personal Identity and Reductionism</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1393.htm">Harris (Henry) - An Experimentalist Looks at Identity</A>", Harris</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4727.htm">Hawthorne (John) - Identity</A>", Hawthorne</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1395.htm">Hill (Claire Ortiz) - Rethinking Identity and Metaphysics: On the Foundations of Analytic Philosophy</A>", Hill</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_32.htm">Hirsch (Eli) - The Concept of Identity</A>", Hirsch</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1413.htm">Hughes (Christopher) - Kripke: Names, Necessity, and Identity</A>", Hughes</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6787.htm">Jubien (Michael) - Identity</A>", Jubien</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_441.htm">Kripke (Saul) - Naming and Necessity</A>", Kripke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_640.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Kinds of Being: Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1016_8">Lowe</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1016_8"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1427.htm">MacBride (Fraser), Ed. - Identity and Modality</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1016_9">MacBride</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1016_9"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5978.htm">McGinn (Colin) - Identity</A>", McGinn</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1404.htm">Morris (Thomas) - Understanding Identity Statements</A>", Morris</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1342.htm">Munitz (Milton) - Identity and Individuation</A>", Munitz<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5185.htm">Quine (W.V.) - Review of Milton Munitz's 'Identity and Individuation'</A>", Quine</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_647.htm">Noonan (Harold), Ed. - Identity</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15899.htm">Papineau (David) - Research Seminar on Personal Identity</A>", Papineau</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1346.htm">Perry (John) - Identity, Personal Identity and the Self</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1779.htm">Quine (W.V.) - Identity, Ostension, and Hypostasis</A>", Quine</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1780.htm">Quine (W.V.) - Identity: an Excerpt From Quiddities</A>", Quine</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5485.htm">Sainsbury (Mark) - Philosophical Logic: Identity</A>", Sainsbury</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5355.htm">Sider (Ted) - Recent Work: Identity Over Time</A>", Sider</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_50.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Ontology, Identity and Modality: Essays in metaphysics</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1016_10">Van Inwagen</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1016_10"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20058.htm">Wiggins (David) & Woods (Michael J.) - Symposium: The Individuation of Things and Places</A>", Wiggins&Woods</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1392.htm">Williams (Bernard) - Identity and Identities</A>", Williams_B</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_662.htm">Williams (Christopher) - Being, Identity, and Truth</A>", Williams_C</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_661.htm">Williams (Christopher) - What is Identity?</A>", Williams_C</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1387.htm">Williamson (Timothy) - Identity and Discrimination</A>", Williamson</li></ul></li><li><b>Relative Identity </b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9286.htm">Borowski (E.J.) - Diachronic Identity as Relative Identity</A>", Borowski</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_439.htm">Deutsch (Harry) - Relative Identity</A>", Deutsch</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5594.htm">Geach (Peter) - Ontological Relativity and Relative Identity</A>", Geach</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1381.htm">Griffin (Nicholas) - Relative Identity</A>", Griffin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_649.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Objects and Identity: An Examination of Relative Identity and its Consequences</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1937.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Relative Identity</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5806.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Borowski on the Relative Identity of Persons</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1016_11">Puccetti</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1016_11"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_53.htm">Wiggins (David) - Identity & Spatio-temporal Continuity</A>", Wiggins</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5144.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Identity and Sortals: Why Relative Identity Is Self-Contradictory</A>", Wilson</li></ul></li><li><b>Vague Identity </b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3744.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Identity and Vagueness</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_13/Abstract_13007.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Vagueness and Identity</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7170.htm">Hossack (Keith) - Vagueness and Personal Identity</A>", Hossack</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3550.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - The Vagueness of Identity</A>", Van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11611.htm">Williamson (Timothy) - Vagueness, Identity and Leibniz's Law</A>", Williamson</li></ul></li><li><b>Indeterminate Identity </b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6704.htm">Cartwright (Helen Morris) - On Two Arguments for the Indeterminacy of Personal Identity</A>", Cartwright</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6181.htm">Heck (Richard) - Is Indeterminate Identity Coherent</A>", Heck</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6987.htm">Olson (Eric) - Imperfect Identity</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1377.htm">Parsons (Terence) - Indeterminate Identity</A>", Parsons</li></ul></li><li><b>Contingent Identity </b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7325.htm">Carter (William) - Contingent Identity and Rigid Designation</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5885.htm">Carter (William) - On Contingent Identity and Temporal Worms</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_444.htm">Gibbard (Allan) - Contingent Identity</A>", Gibbard</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6094.htm">Keefe (Rosanna) - Contingent Identity and Vague Identity</A>", Keefe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3475.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Necessity and Identity</A>", Lowe</li></ul></li><li><b>Occasional Identity </b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1389.htm">Gallois (Andre) - Occasions of Identity : a Study in the Metaphysics of Persistence, Change, and Sameness</A>", Gallois</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19853.htm">Sider (Ted) - Review of Andr Gallois, Occasions of Identity</A>", Sider </li></ul></li><li><b>Criteria of Identity</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6251.htm">Griffin (Nicholas) - Criteria Of Identity</A>", Griffin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3629.htm">Hudson (Hud) - The Criterion of Personal Identity</A>", Hudson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8898.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - Principles of Composition and Criteria of Identity</A>", Hawley</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1936.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Objects and Criteria of Identity</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3418.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Sortal Terms and Criteria of Identity</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3446.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - What Is a Criterion Of Identity?</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3445.htm">Williamson (Timothy) - Criteria of Identity and the Axiom Of Choice</A>", Williamson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6615.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Criteria of Identity and the 'Identity Mystics'</A>", Zimmerman</li></ul></li><li><b>Substances</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6989.htm">Broackes (Justin) - Substance</A>", Broakes</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5154.htm">Broackes (Justin) & Hacker (P.M.S.) - Substance: Things and Stuffs</A>", Broakes&Hacker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5099.htm">Campbell (Scott) - Persons and Substances</A>", Campbell</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4710.htm">Crane (Tim) - Substance (4-Lecture BA Course)</A>", Crane</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1433.htm">Hoffman (Joshua) & Rosenkrantz (Gary) - Substance: Its Nature and Existence</A>", Hoffman&Rosenkrantz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6607.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Substance, Identity and Time</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_639.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - The Possibility of Metaphysics: Substance, Identity and Time</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4102.htm">Moreland (J.P.) & Rae (Scott) - Human Persons as Substances or Property-Things</A>", Moreland&Rae</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6608.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Substance, Identity and Time</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4715.htm">Robinson (Howard) - Substance</A>", Robinson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_54.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance</A>", Wiggins</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1312.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance Renewed</A>", Wiggins</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20073.htm">Wikipedia - Hylomorphism</A>", Wikipedia</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4457.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Review of Hoffman & Rosenkrantz's 'Substance: Its Nature and Existence'</A>", Zimmerman</li></ul></li><li><b>Sortals & Phase Sortals</b><ul type="disc"><li>Some of the above, and & </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6087.htm">Ayers (Michael R.) - Individuals Without Sortals</A>", Ayers</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5108.htm">Baillie (James) - Identity, Survival, and Sortal Concepts</A>", Baillie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3947.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Stages, Sortals, and Possible Worlds</A>", Brennan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7169.htm">Campbell (John) - Sortals and the Binding Problem</A>", Campbell</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5500.htm">Feldman (Fred) - Sortal Predicates</A>", Feldman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6250.htm">Griffin (Nicholas) - Sortals</A>", Griffin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_640.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Kinds of Being: Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4463.htm">Mackie (Penelope) - Sortal Concepts and Essential Properties</A>", Mackie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5398.htm">Perry (John) - The Same F</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5851.htm">Price (Marjorie) - Identity Through Time</A>", Price</li></ul></li><li><b>Kinds and Natural Kinds</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_572.htm">Doepke (Frederick) - The Kinds of Things: A Theory of Personal Identity Based on Transcendental Argument</A>", Doepke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1443.htm">Elder (Crawford) - Real Natures and Familiar Objects</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1016_12">Elder</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1016_12"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7797.htm">Elder (Crawford) - Real Natures and Familiar Objects: Synopsis</A>", Elder</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7406.htm">Ereshefsky (Marc) - Bridging the Gap between Human Kinds and Biological Kinds</A>", Ereshefsky</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19961.htm">Hawley (Katherine) & Bird (Alexander) - What are Natural Kinds?</A>", Hawley&Bird</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3714.htm">Hirsch (Eli) - Natural Kinds and Natural Units</A>", Hirsch</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5097.htm">Kitcher (Patricia) - Natural Kinds and Unnatural Persons</A>", Kitcher</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7850.htm">LaPorte (Joseph) - Natural Kinds and Conceptual Change: Introduction</A>", LaPorte</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_640.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Kinds of Being: Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5850.htm">Mellor (D.H.) - Natural Kinds</A>", Mellor</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2117.htm">Quine (W.V.) - Natural Kinds</A>", Quine</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1445.htm">Wilkerson (T.E.) - Natural Kinds</A>", Wilkerson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1337.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities</A>", Wilson</li></ul></li><li><b><a name="28"></a>Metamorphosis</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15869.htm">Arnold (Keith) - The Subject of Radical Change</A>", Arnold</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_570.htm">Bynum (Caroline) - Metamorphosis and Identity</A>", Bynum </li></ul></li><li><b>Does Identity Matter?</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4981.htm">Baker (Deane-Peter) - Taylor and Parfit on Personal Identity: a Response to Lotter</A>", Baker_DP</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4760.htm">Brueckner (Anthony) - Parfit On What Matters In Survival</A>", Brueckner</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4718.htm">Cassam (Quassim) - Parfit on Persons</A>", Cassam</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_81.htm">Dancy (Jonathan), Ed. - Reading Parfit</A>", Dancy</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3745.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Parfit and 'What Matters'</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3692.htm">Martin (Raymond) - Identity, Transformation, and What Matters in Survival</A>", Martin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5656.htm">Martin (Raymond) - Memory, Connecting and What Matters In Survival</A>", Martin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3971.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Parfit and What Matters in Survival</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5657.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Comments</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_542.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Lewis, Perry, and What Matters</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4761.htm">Parfit (Derek) - The Indeterminacy Of Identity: A Reply To Brueckner</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_559.htm">Parfit (Derek) - The Unimportance of Identity</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_325.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Personal Identity</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3574.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Why Our Identity is Not What Matters</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5246.htm">Parfit (Derek) - On 'The Importance of Self-Identity'</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5245.htm">Penelhum (Terence) - The Importance of Self-Identity</A>", Penelhum</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_541.htm">Perry (John) - The Importance of Being Identical</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15140.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity, Rational Anticipation, and Self-Concern</A>", Shoemaker_D</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4433.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Review of Derek Parfit's 'Reasons and Persons'</A>", Shoemaker_S</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3622.htm">Unger (Peter) - What Matters In Our Survival: Distinctions, Compromises and Limits</A>", Unger</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1020.htm">Wiggins (David) - The Concern to Survive</A>", Wiggins </li></ul></li><li>Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters. </li><li>The motivation for these works is as follows:- <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied.<BR> </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u> <ol type="1"><li>There had already been a lot of cutting in the various selections of the original reading list  the reading lists attached to the Notes run on and on  and these items just represent the works in my possession (though I have sought out all that I ve heard of that look relevant). </li><li>However, the items in the lists following were given some attention, and have been culled  at least temporarily  from the lists above, where they originally appeared. I ve not always given a reason as I ve not studied them sufficiently closely. But, you have to draw a line somewhere. </li><li>I m well aware that the cut has not been sufficiently rigorous. Further items beyond the items below are likely to be culled when I come to process them. <ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a>To be Supplied. <BR> </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Links to Notes</u></b><ol type="1"><li><a name="28"></a>Logic of Identity, including:- <ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a>Relative Identity,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Vague Identity.</li><li><a name="28"></a>Indeterminate Identity,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Contingent Identity, and</li><li><a name="28"></a>Occasional Identity. </li></ul></li><li><a name="28"></a>Criteria of Identity,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Substance,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Sortals,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Metamorphosis,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Phase Sortals,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Kinds,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Natural Kinds,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Does Identity Matter,</li><li>Others to be supplied as they come up. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Final Remarks</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This is <a name="28"></a>work in progress. </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_1016_6"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 6</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1016_7"></A><B>Footnote 7</B>: There s an endless amount of stuff in this area, so I ve (for now) chosen a couple of contrasting approaches. <a name="On-Page_Link_1016_8"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 8</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This also appears in other Sections of this Chapter.</li><li>I have a number of Reviews of this book:- <ul type="square"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20013.htm">Baur (Michael) - Review of 'Kinds of Being: A Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms' by E. J. Lowe</A>", Baur</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20012.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Review of 'Kinds of Being: A Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms' by E. J. Lowe</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20011.htm">Simons (Peter) - Review of 'Kinds of Being: A Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms' by E. J. Lowe</A>", Simons </li></ul> </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_1016_9"></A><B>Footnote 9</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Modality is important in my thesis, because modal questions come into persistence criteria. </li><li>That said, the last two essays in the book  by Hossack and Olson  are the most important, though of these two only that by Hossack really belongs to this Chapter. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1016_10"></A><B>Footnote 10</B>: I m not sure where this book should be parked, and not all of it is relevant. <a name="On-Page_Link_1016_11"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 11</B>: I doubt this paper is really about Relative Identity, but more about Brain Transplants). <a name="On-Page_Link_1016_12"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 12</B>: Read the Synopsis below first. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 24/04/2018 00:12:58<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 6: (Thesis - Chapter 05 (Persistence and Time))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b><ul type="disc">A number of thought experiments that feature in <a name="28"></a>Chapter 10 seem to fail if perdurantism is true (because the reduplication objections fail). <li>Depending on whether any of these are critical to my arguments, I may need to consider the impact of perdurantism. </li><li>But this complex area may be a step too far within a fairly limited word-count. </li><li>I m also unsure whether it should feature before or after the account of Thought Experiments. </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages.</li><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks. </li></ul> <BR><hr><BR><u><b>Chapter Introduction</u></b><ol type="1"><li>Any discussion of identity over time  of anything  needs to have some discussion of just what it is for something to persist, and what we take time to be. </li><li>Additionally, as noted in the abstract, depending on our approach to time and persistence, some of the troubling thought experiments that worry us about the persistence of human persons are resolved, though we get nothing for nothing. As is usual in philosophy, a gain here is compensated for by a loss somewhere else. We need to determine these losses, and agree that they are  worth it . </li><li>Further text to be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_4">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_4"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going. </li><li>The references are segregated by sub-topic, as below, but there is much overlap.</li><li><b>Time</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16168.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Time</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4112.htm">Campbell (Joseph Keim), O'Rourke (Michael) & Silverstein (Harry S.) - Time and Identity</A>", Campbell</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4895.htm">Coope (Ursula) - Time for Aristotle: Physics IV. 10-14</A>", Coope</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19958.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - Persistence and Time</A>", Hawley</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1449.htm">LePoidevin (Robin) - Travels in Four Dimensions: The Enigmas of Space and Time</A>", LePoidevin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1159.htm">LePoidevin (Robin) & MacBeath (Murray), Eds. - The Philosophy of Time: Oxford Readings in Philosophy</A>", LePoidevin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20230.htm">Marshall (Richard) & Callender (Craig) - Craig Callender: Time Lord</A>", Marshall&Callender</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17911.htm">Markosian (Ned) - Time</A>", Markosian</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1160.htm">Mellor (D.H.) - Real Time</A>", Mellor</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1420.htm">Mellor (D.H.) - Real Time II</A>", Mellor</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14455.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Passage of Time</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_706.htm">Prior (Arthur N.) - Papers on Time and Tense</A>", Prior</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1452.htm">Sattig (Thomas) - The Language and Reality of Time</A>", Sattig</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2887.htm">Sklar (Lawrence) - Space, Time and Spacetime</A>", Sklar</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8467.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - The A-Theory of Time, The B-Theory of Time, and  Taking Tense Seriously </A>", Zimmerman</li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_5">Time Travel</A></U><SUB>5</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_5"></A></b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20897.htm">Dowe (Phil) - The Case for Time Travel</A>", Dowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20895.htm">Ehring (Douglas) - Personal Identity and Time Travel</A>", Ehring</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_482.htm">Grey (William) - Troubles with Time Travel</A>", Grey</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17190.htm">Horwich (Paul) - On Some Alleged Paradoxes of Time Travel</A>", Horwich</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_58.htm">Lewis (David) - The Paradoxes of Time Travel</A>", Lewis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20898.htm">Miller (Kristie) - Travelling in Time: How to Wholly Exist in Two Places at the Same Time</A>", Miller</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20904.htm">Richmond (Alasdair) - Philosophy of Time Travel Course Guide 2014/15</A>", Richmond</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7040.htm">Varzi (Achille) - Time-Travel</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_6">Varzi</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_6"></A> </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20899.htm">Wright (John) - Personal Identity, Fission and Time Travel</A>", Wright</li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_7">Modality / Possible Worlds</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_7"></A></b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_102.htm">Chisholm (Roderick) - Identity Through Possible Worlds: Some Questions</A>", Chisholm</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_112.htm">Lewis (David) - Counterparts of Persons and Their Bodies</A>", Lewis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_637.htm">Lewis (David) - On the Plurality of Worlds</A>", Lewis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7208.htm">Melia (Joseph) - Introduction to Modality</A>", Melia </li></ul></li><li><b>Persistence</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_445.htm">Armstrong (David) - Identity Through Time</A>", Armstrong</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1390.htm">Haslanger (Sally) & Kurtz (Roxanne), Eds. - Persistence : Contemporary Readings</A>", Haslanger&Kurtz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1345.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - How Things Persist</A>", Hawley </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1372.htm">Oderberg (David) - The Metaphysics of Identity Over Time</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_8">Oderberg</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_8"></A> </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3508.htm">Olson (Eric) - Persistence</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6214.htm">Sider (Ted) - Persistence and Parthood Seminar</A>", Sider</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_442.htm">Sider (Ted) & Zimmerman (Dean) - Persistence - Bibliography</A>", Sider&Zimmerman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6215.htm">Sider (Ted) & Zimmerman (Dean) - Persistence Seminar</A>", Sider&Zimmerman</li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_9">Survival</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_9"></A></b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3801.htm">Baillie (James) - Identity and Survival</A>", Baillie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11406.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Survival</A>", Brennan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19032.htm">Bruntrup (Godehard) - 3.5-Dimensionalism and Survival: A Process Ontological Approach</A>", Bruntrup</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1383.htm">Corcoran (Kevin), Ed. - Soul, Body and Survival: Essays on the Metaphysics of Human Persons</A>", Corcoran</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11403.htm">Ehring (Douglas) - Survival and Trivial Facts</A>", Ehring</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9559.htm">Flew (Anthony) - Three Ways to Survival</A>", Flew</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_113.htm">Lewis (David) - Survival and Identity</A>", Lewis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6031.htm">Matthews (Gareth B.) - Surviving As</A>", Matthews</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_133.htm">Penelhum (Terence) - Survival and Disembodied Existence</A>", Penelhum</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_540.htm">Rey (Georges) - Survival</A>", Rey</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4445.htm">Sosa (Ernest) - Surviving Matters</A>", Sosa</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3622.htm">Unger (Peter) - What Matters In Our Survival: Distinctions, Compromises and Limits</A>", Unger</li></ul></li><li><b>Endurantism</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16171.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Three-dimensionalism defended</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5800.htm">Barker (Stephen) & Dowe (Phil) - Endurance is paradoxical</A>", Barker&Dowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11977.htm">Hawthorne (John) - Three-Dimensionalism</A>", Hawthorne</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2002.htm">Loux (Michael) - Endurantism and Perdurantism</A>", Loux</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5794.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Vagueness and Endurance</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4328.htm">Merricks (Trenton) - Endurance, Psychological Continuity, and the Importance of Personal Identity</A>", Merricks</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20149.htm">Rosenkrantz (Gary) - An Epistemic Argument for Enduring Human Persons</A>", Rosenkrantz</li></ul></li><li><b>Perdurantism</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_257.htm">Butterfield (Jeremy) - On the Persistence of Homogeneous Matter</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_10">Butterfield</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_10"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_258.htm">Butterfield (Jeremy) - On the Persistence of Particles</A>", Butterfield </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3432.htm">Butterfield (Jeremy) - Spatial and Temporal Parts</A>", Butterfield </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_31.htm">Heller (Mark) - The Ontology of Physical Objects: Four-Dimensional Hunks of Matter</A>", Heller</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_109.htm">Hudson (Hud) - A Materialist Metaphysics of the Human Person</A>", Hudson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_05/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_5724.htm">Hudson (Hud) - The Metaphysics of Hyperspace</A>", Hudson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12899.htm">Lewis (David) - On the Plurality of Worlds (Selections)</A>", Lewis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18378.htm">McGrath (Matthew) - Four-Dimensionalism and the Puzzles of Coincidence</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_11">McGrath</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_11"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14933.htm">Gilmore (Cody) - Time Travel, Coinciding Objects and Persistence</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_12">Gilmore</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_12"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1372.htm">Oderberg (David) - The Metaphysics of Identity Over Time</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_13">Oderberg</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_13"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5228.htm">Sider (Ted) - Precis of Four-Dimensionalism</A>", Sider</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6290.htm">Varzi (Achille) - Change, Temporal Parts, and the Argument from Vagueness</A>", Varzi</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5128.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Temporal Parts and Supervenient Causation: The Incompatibility of Two Humean Doctrines</A>", Zimmerman</li></ul></li><li><b>Exdurantism</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5095.htm">Braddon-Mitchell (David) & West (Caroline) - Temporal Phase Pluralism</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_14">Braddon-Mitchell</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_14"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19956.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - David Lewis on Persistence</A>", Hawley</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5393.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - Parts and Stages</A>", Hawley</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5125.htm">Sider (Ted) - All the World's a Stage</A>", Sider</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1339.htm">Sider (Ted) - Four-dimensionalism: An Ontology of Persistence and Time</A>", Sider</li></ul></li><li>Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters. </li><li>The motivation for these works is as follows:- <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied.<BR> </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u> <ol type="1"><li>There had already been a lot of cutting in the various selections of the original reading list  the reading lists attached to the Notes run on and on  and these items just represent the works in my possession (though I have sought out all that I ve heard of that look relevant). </li><li>However, the items in the lists following were given some attention, and have been culled  at least temporarily  from the lists above, where they originally appeared. I ve not always given a reason as I ve not studied them sufficiently closely. But, you have to draw a line somewhere. </li><li>I m well aware that the cut has not been sufficiently rigorous. Further items beyond the items below are likely to be culled when I come to process them. <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9800.htm">Forrest (Peter) - Endurance and Fatalism</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_15">Forrest</A></U><SUB>15</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_15"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_13/Abstract_13024.htm">Harris (John) - The Survival Lottery</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1017_16">Harris</A></U><SUB>16</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1017_16"></A> </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Links to Notes</u></b><ol type="1"><li><a name="28"></a>Time,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Time Travel,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Persistence,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Persistence Criteria,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Survival,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Endurantism,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Perdurantism,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Exdurantism.</li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Final Remarks</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This is <a name="28"></a>work in progress. </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_1017_4"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 4</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1017_5"></A><B>Footnote 5</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I thought I d written somewhere that this  fun though it might be  is a bridge too far. But it is relevant. </li><li>I ll expand the reading list based on the items already listed. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1017_6"></A><B>Footnote 6</B>: And the rest of an interesting 2005 edition of <em>The Monist</em>. <a name="On-Page_Link_1017_7"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 7</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is parked here until it finds its final resting place. </li><li>If I do cover possible worlds, I ll need more material than this. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_1017_8"></A><B>Footnote 8</B>: This might also be useful for perdurantism, or for the logic of identity. <a name="On-Page_Link_1017_9"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 9</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>There is some overlap  as far as papers reviewed are concerned  between this Section and the  Does Identity Matter Section in <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1016.htm">Chapter 4</a>.</li><li>This Chapter focuses on the <em>meaning</em> of  Survival , while the previous chapter focuses on its <em>relation to Identity</em>, and the importance of identity for survival.</li><li>But, I think they should probably be covered in the same place, and probably not here. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1017_10"></A><B>Footnote 10</B>: These three papers by Butterfield are very specialised, and this one is very long, and may be left to one side for now. <a name="On-Page_Link_1017_11"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 11</B>: This looks like an important paper, which rejects the  proofs of 4D based on the  coincidence TEs. <a name="On-Page_Link_1017_12"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 12</B>: Another important-looking paper, also against perdurantism, along similar lines to the above. <a name="On-Page_Link_1017_13"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 13</B>: Oderberg seems to be arguing that Perdurantism is an unwanted consequence of a common-sense notion of persistence. <a name="On-Page_Link_1017_14"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 14</B>: I m not sure whether this belongs here, but it looks an interesting paper. <a name="On-Page_Link_1017_15"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 15</B>: I don t have the paper!<a name="On-Page_Link_1017_16"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 16</B>: This is an ethical rather than metaphysical discussion. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 05/04/2016 23:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 7: (Thesis - Chapter 06 (Animalism and Arguments for It))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b><ul type="disc">This Chapter describes what Animalism is, with an excursus on animals and organisms and their persistence. <li>It puts forward the arguments in favour of animalism, those against being reserved for a later Chapter. </li><li>It focuses on the account of <A HREF = "../../../Authors/O/Author_Olson (Eric).htm">Eric Olson</A>, the primary contemporary exponent of Animalism. </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages. </li><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks. </li></ul> <BR><hr><BR><u><b>Chapter Introduction</u></b><ol type="1"><li>As we saw in <a name="28"></a>Chapter 02, nothing is more obvious than that we are human animals. </li><li>The disadvantages of whole-hearted acceptance of this seemingly obvious fact are firstly that it seems to demote human beings from their status of being made in the image of the God most people no longer believe in. There are two responses to this; either to deny that it does, or to accept that the differences between human beings and other animals are those of degree rather than kind. </li><li>A second disadvantage is that accepting that we are human animals makes the prospects for post-mortem survival look bleak. This is addressed in <a name="28"></a>Chapter 11. </li><li>So, while saying that we are human animals might seem to be the default position  and so the burden is on others to demonstrate that we are not  the historical situation places a burden on the animalist to present the case for animalism with as much rigour as possible.</li><li>Further text to be supplied. </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1018_5">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>5</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1018_5"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going.</li><li>As this is a  core chapter, the coverage of the literature will be very complete, if not exhaustive, when it comes to Animalism itself. </li><li>For background topics, it will be <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1018_6">more selective</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1018_6"></A>. Hence, I have divided the reading list into two. </li><li>I ve not been overly careful to segregate the reading-list of this Chapter from that of <a name="28"></a>Chapter 8. I will address the segregation in due course. There will, in any case, be some overlap. </li><li><b>Core Topics</b> <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3961.htm">Ayers (Michael R.) - Neo-Lockean and Anti-Lockean Theories of Personal Identity in Analytic Philosophy</A>", Ayers</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6076.htm">Berglund (Stefan) - Animalism</A>", Berglund</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19926.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - A New Argument for Animalism</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7620.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - Animalism (Continuum)</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7624.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - Animalism and its Implications</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7621.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - Animalism and Personal Identity</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12073.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - Animalism Unburdened</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19912.htm">Blatti (Stephan), Ed. - The Lives of Human Animals</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11407.htm">Campbell (Scott) - Animals, Babies, and Subjects</A>", Campbell</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5241.htm">Carter (William) - Death and Bodily Transfiguration</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5488.htm">Carter (William) - Do Zygotes Become People?</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4933.htm">Carter (William) - How to Change Your Mind</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5663.htm">Carter (William) - Once and Future Persons</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5109.htm">Carter (William) - Our Bodies, Our Selves</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7644.htm">Carter (William) - Personal Identity</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4303.htm">Carter (William) - Will I Be a Dead Person?</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3741.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Animalism and Reductionism</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7611.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Some Thoughts on Animalism</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4546.htm">Hershenov (David) - Countering the Appeal of the Psychological Approach to Personal Identity</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19893.htm">Johansson (Jens) - What is Animalism?</A>", Johansson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20173.htm">Liao (S. Matthew) - The Organism View Defended</A>", Liao</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5075.htm">Mackie (David) - Animalism Versus Lockeanism: No Contest</A>", Mackie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5028.htm">Mackie (David) - Going Topless</A>", Mackie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_560.htm">Olson (Eric) - An Argument for Animalism</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5120.htm">Olson (Eric) - Human Atoms</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4762.htm">Olson (Eric) - Human People Or Human Animals</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5041.htm">Olson (Eric) - Is Psychology Relevant To Personal Identity?</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5192.htm">Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17915.htm">Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity (Stanford, 2010)</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5040.htm">Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity and the Radiation Argument</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14447.htm">Olson (Eric) - Precis of 'The Human Animal'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5211.htm">Olson (Eric) - Relativism and Persistence</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4721.htm">Olson (Eric) - Review of Hud Hudson's 'A Materialist Metaphysics of the Human Person'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7743.htm">Olson (Eric) - Review of Jack Wilson's 'Biological Individuality: The Identity and Persistence of Living Entities'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7742.htm">Olson (Eric) - Review of Lowe's 'The Possibility of Metaphysics'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7733.htm">Olson (Eric) - Review of Perry's 'Identity, Personal Identity, and the Self'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7731.htm">Olson (Eric) - Review of Tye's 'Consciousness and Persons - Unity and Identity'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_130.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Human Animal - Personal Identity Without Psychology</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7074.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Paradox of Increase</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20229.htm">Marshall (Richard) & Olson (Eric) - Eric T. Olson: The Philosopher with No Hands</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2673.htm">Olson (Eric) - There Is No Problem of the Self</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7610.htm">Olson (Eric) - Warum wir Tiere sind (Why we are animals)</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4739.htm">Olson (Eric) - Was I Ever a Fetus?</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12019.htm">Olson (Eric) - Was I Ever a Fetus? ('New Version')</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5208.htm">Olson (Eric) - Was Jekyll Hyde?</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2710.htm">Olson (Eric) - What are We?</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7348.htm">Olson (Eric) - Why I Have No Hands</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1442.htm">Petrus (Klaus), Ed. - On Human Persons</A>", Petrus</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8571.htm">Puhl (Klaus) - Review of Klaus Petrus's 'On Human Persons'</A>", Puhl</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5626.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Embryos, Souls, and the Fourth Dimension</A>", Shoemaker_D</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15140.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity, Rational Anticipation, and Self-Concern</A>", Shoemaker_D</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4667.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - Personal Identity (Lectures 1 - 4)</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1220.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - Persons and Personal Identity</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3395.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - Persons, Animals, and Ourselves</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5094.htm">Steinhart (Eric) - Persons Versus Brains: Biological Intelligence in Human Organisms</A>", Steinhart</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5066.htm">Tollefsen (Christopher) - Abortion and the Human Animal</A>", Tollefsen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4191.htm">Wiggins (David) - Reply to Snowdon (Persons and Personal Identity)</A>", Wiggins </li></ul></li><li><b>Background Material</b> <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3355.htm">Anstotz (Christoph) - Profoundly Intellectually Disabled Humans and the Great Apes: A Comparison</A>", Anstotz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1371.htm">Brody (Baruch) - Abortion and the Sanctity of Human Life : a Philosophical View</A>", Brody</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3593.htm">Bekoff (Marc) - The Emotional Lives of Animals: A Leading Scientist Explores Animal Joy, Sorrow, and Empathy and Why They Matter</A>", Bekoff</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1385.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Human Identity and Bioethics</A>", DeGrazia</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1478.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status</A>", DeGrazia</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6976.htm">Dorr (Cian) - Merricks on the Existence of Human Organisms</A>", Dorr</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2666.htm">Fetzer (James) - The Evolution of Intelligence: Are Humans the Only Animals with Minds?</A>", Fetzer</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1365.htm">Ford (Norman) - When Did I Begin: Conception of the Human Individual in History, Philosophy and Science</A>", Ford</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20167.htm">Gallup (Gordon G.) - Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition</A>", Gallup</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PaperSummary_20165.htm">Gallup (Gordon G.) - Levels, Limits, and Precursors to Self-Recognition: Does Ontogeny Recapitulate Phylogeny?</A>", Gallup</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PaperSummary_20166.htm">Gallup (Gordon G.) - Self-Awareness in Primates: The sense of identity distinguishes man from most but perhaps not all other forms of life</A>", Gallup</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1393.htm">Ghiselin (Michael) - Metaphysics and the Origin of Species</A>", Ghiselin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1373.htm">Gilbert (Scott) - Developmental Biology</A>", Gilbert</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1470.htm">Griffin (Donald) - Animal Minds</A>", Griffin<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20168.htm">Gallup (Gordon G.) - Animal Minds: Review</A>", Gallup</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1944.htm">Hartl (Daniel L.) - Our Uncertain Heritage: Genetics & Human Diversity</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1018_8">Hartl</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1018_8"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7382.htm">Hoffman (Joshua) & Rosenkrantz (Gary) - On the Unity of the Parts of Organisms</A>", Hoffman&Rosenkrantz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3633.htm">Hurley (Susan) & Nudds (Matthew) - Rational Animals?</A>", Hurley&Nudds</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19209.htm">Lurz (Robert) - Animal Minds</A>", Lurz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20157.htm">Penn (Derek C.) & Povinelli (Daniel) - On the Lack of Evidence That Non-Human Animals Possess Anything Remotely Resembling a 'Theory of Mind'</A>", Penn&Povinelli</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20156.htm">Povinelli (Daniel) - Behind the Ape's Appearance: Escaping Anthropocentrism in the Study of Other Minds</A>", Povinelli</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2189.htm">Rachels (James) - Created From Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism</A>", Rachels</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1441.htm">Richards (Janet Radcliffe) - Human Nature After Darwin: A Philosophical Introduction</A>", Richards</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2922.htm">Rowlands (Mark) - The Philosopher and the Wolf</A>", Rowlands</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11449.htm">Scarlett (Brian) - The Moral Uniqueness of the Human Animal</A>", Scarlett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14534.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - A Materialist Ontology of the Human Person</A>", Van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_49.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Material Beings</A>", Van <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1018_9">Inwagen</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1018_9"></A><BR>&rarr;"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5892.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Prcis of Material Beings</A>", Van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1337.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities</A>", Wilson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4876.htm">Wollheim (Richard) - Living</A>", Wollheim</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5133.htm">Yourgrau (Palle) - Can the Dead Really Be Buried?</A>", Yourgrau </li></ul></li><li>Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters. </li><li>The motivation for these works is as follows:- <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u> <ol type="1"><li>There had already been a lot of cutting in the various selections of the original reading list  the reading lists attached to the Notes run on and on  and these items just represent the works in my possession (though I have sought out all that I ve heard of that look relevant). </li><li>However, the items in the lists following were given some attention, and have been culled  at least temporarily  from the lists above, where they originally appeared. I ve not always given a reason as I ve not studied them sufficiently closely. But, you have to draw a line somewhere. </li><li>I m well aware that the cut has not been sufficiently rigorous. Further items beyond the items below are likely to be culled when I come to process them. <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied. <BR> </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Links to Notes</u></b><ol type="1"><li><a name="28"></a>Animalism, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Animalists, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Bodies, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Olson, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Animals, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Organisms, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Life, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Thinking Animal Argument, </li><li><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1018_18">Other Arguments for Animalism</A></U><SUB>18</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1018_18"></A>,</li><li>Others to be supplied? </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Final Remarks</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This is <a name="28"></a>work in progress. </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_1018_5"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 5</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1018_6"></A><B>Footnote 6</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>There are a few papers listed on the cognitive capacities of animals. </li><li>I got bored with listing these, so the sample may not be representative. </li><li>These are, in any case, probably more relevant to <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1021.htm">Chapter 9</a>  as an antidote to Baker s attempted ontological separation of human persons from human animals  so I will move them there  and expand the list if necessary  in due course. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1018_8"></A><B>Footnote 8</B>: A knowledge of genetics is important in arguments about the comings into being and identities of animals. <a name="On-Page_Link_1018_9"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 9</B>: What is this important book doing here?<a name="On-Page_Link_1018_18"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 18</B>: This needs a Note!</P><B>Note last updated:</B> 05/04/2016 23:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 8: (Thesis - Chapter 07 (The Constitution View and Arguments for It))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>This Chapter gives an account of Lynne Rudder Baker s thesis that human persons are not identical to human animals, but are  temporarily at least  constituted by them. </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages. </li><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks. </li></ul> <BR><hr><BR><u><b>Chapter Introduction</u></b><ol type="1"><li>Baker s account of constitution is not the standard <a name="28"></a>mereological account, of some larger body being constituted by its parts, but is her own idea that requires explication. </li><li>Baker also has a commitment to PERSONs being substances in their own right, rather than being an honorific title applied to substances that at other times might not deserve the honorific. </li><li>She also reifies a useful idea  that of a First-person Perspective. It is the FPP that individuates persons, according to Baker, so the FPP requires explanation as well. </li><li>Further detail to be supplied. </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1019_4">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1019_4"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going. </li><li>I ve not been overly careful to segregate the reading-list of this Chapter from that of <a name="28"></a>Chapter 9. I will address the segregation in due course. There will, in any case, be some overlap. </li><li><b>Baker</b> <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3846.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - The Metaphysics of Everyday Life: An Essay in Practical Realism</A>",</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1144.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Saving Belief: A Critique of Physicalism</A>". </li></ul></li><li><b>Constitution</b> <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16169.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Constitution Revisited</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16170.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Mereology and Constitution</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7289.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - On Making Things Up: Constitution and Its Critics</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5161.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Unity without Identity: A New Look at Material Constitution</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4281.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Why Constitution is Not Identity</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19927.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - Material Constitution</A>", Blatti </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3758.htm">Doepke (Frederick) - The Constitution Relation</A>", Doepke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5321.htm">Fine (Kit) - A Counter-Example To Locke's Thesis</A>", Fine</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4286.htm">Fine (Kit) - The Non-Identity of a Material Thing and Its Matter</A>", Fine</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20175.htm">Hazlett (Allan) - Disassembly and Destruction</A>", Hazlett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6786.htm">Jubien (Michael) - Things and Their Parts</A>", Jubien</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4494.htm">Merricks (Trenton) - Against the Doctrine of Microphysical Supervenience</A>", Merricks</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4423.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Constitution Is Identity</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5136.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Identity, Constitution and Microphysical Supervenience</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_45.htm">Rea (Michael), Ed. - Material Constitution - A Reader</A>", Rea</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5889.htm">Rea (Michael) - Constitution and Kind Membership</A>", Rea</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5634.htm">Rea (Michael) - Lynne Baker on Material Constitution</A>", Rea</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5359.htm">Wasserman (Ryan) - The Constitution Question</A>", Wasserman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4456.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Theories of Masses and Problems of Constitution</A>", Zimmerman. </li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1019_6">Mereology</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1019_6"></A></b> <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6091.htm">Carter (William) - In Defense of Undetached Parts</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4763.htm">Cartwright (Richard) - Scattered Objects</A>", Cartwright</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20712.htm">McDaniel (Kris) - Composition as Identity Does Not Entail Universalism</A>", McDaniel</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1378.htm">Simons (Peter) - Parts: A Study in Ontology</A>", Simons</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20711.htm">Sutton (Catherine S.) - Composition as Identity - A Resource Page</A>", Sutton </li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1019_7">Co-Location</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1019_7"></A></b> <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16637.htm">Bennett (Karen) - Composition, Colocation, and Metaontology</A>", Bennett_K</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8441.htm">Bennett (Karen) - Spatio-Temporal Coincidence and the Grounding Problem</A>", Bennett_K </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7321.htm">Burke (Michael) - Cohabitation, Stuff and Intermittent Existence</A>", Burke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5365.htm">Burke (Michael) - Coinciding Objects: Reply to Lowe and Denkel</A>", Burke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6393.htm">Burke (Michael) - Copper Statues and Pieces of Copper: A Challenge to the Standard Account</A>", Burke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4301.htm">Burke (Michael) - Dion and Theon: An Essentialist Solution to an Ancient Puzzle</A>", Burke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7324.htm">Burke (Michael) - Dion, Theon, and the many-thinkers problem</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1019_8">Burke</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1019_8"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2011.htm">Burke (Michael) - Preserving the Principle of One Object to a Place: A Novel Account of the Relations Amongst Objects, Sorts, Sortals, and Persistence Conditions</A>", Burke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5187.htm">Burke (Michael) - Tibbles the Cat: A Modern Sophisma</A>", Burke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4302.htm">Carter (William) - Dion's Left Foot (and the Price of Burkean Economy)</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6040.htm">Denkel (Arda) - Theon s Tale: Does a Cambridge Change Result in a Substantial Change?</A>", Denkel</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6039.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Coinciding Objects: In Defence of the  Standard Account </A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4425.htm">Olson (Eric) - Dion's Foot</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4757.htm">Olson (Eric) - Material Coincidence and the Indiscernibility Problem</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5328.htm">Parsons (Josh) - Dion, Theon, and DAUP</A>", Parsons</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20710.htm">Sutton (Catherine S.) - Colocated Objects, Tally-Ho: A Solution to the Grounding Problem</A>", Sutton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_422.htm">Wiggins (David) - On Being in the Same Place at the Same Time</A>", Wiggins </li></ul></li><li><b>First-Person Perspectives</b> <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7313.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Neuroscience and the Human Mind</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5632.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - The First-Person Perspective: A Test For Naturalism</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4669.htm">Cassam (Quassim) - Reductionism and First-Person Thinking</A>", Cassam</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_34.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - The First-Person Perspective</A>", Shoemaker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12804.htm">Valberg (J.J.) - What Makes First-Person Reference First Personal?</A>", Valberg. </li></ul></li><li><b> Constitution View </b> <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20169.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Everyday Concepts as a Guide to Reality</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7293.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Material Persons and the Doctrine of Resurrection</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6205.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Materialism with a Human Face</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7298.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - On Being One s Own Person</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_66.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5137.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Precis of 'Persons & Bodies: A Constitution View'</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7308.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Review of 'A Materialist Metaphysics of the Human Person' by Hud Hudson</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7285.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - The Difference that Self-Consciousness Makes</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5194.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - The Ontological Status of Persons</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7312.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - When Do Persons Begin and End?</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6979.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - When Does a Person Begin?</A>", Baker </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8885.htm">Corcoran (Kevin) - Persons, Bodies and the Constitution Relation</A>", Corcoran</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1398.htm">Lizza (John) - Persons, Humanity, & the Definition of Death</A>", Lizza</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6204.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Identity, Composition, and the Simplicity of the Self</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3911.htm">Merricks (Trenton) - Objects & Persons: Preface</A>", Merricks</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5209.htm">Olson (Eric) - Lowe's Defence of Constitutionalism</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12012.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Constitution</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1328.htm">Thomson (Judith Jarvis) - People and Their Bodies</A>", Thomson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4924.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Philosophers and the Words 'Human Body'</A>", Van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5900.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Reply to Reviewers</A>", Van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6980.htm">Wilson (Robert) - Persons, Social Agency, and Constitution</A>", Wilson </li></ul></li><li>Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters. </li><li>The motivation for these works is as follows:- <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied.<BR> </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u> <ol type="1"><li>There had already been a lot of cutting in the various selections of the original reading list  the reading lists attached to the Notes run on and on  and these items just represent the works in my possession (though I have sought out all that I ve heard of that look relevant). </li><li>However, the items in the lists following were given some attention, and have been culled  at least temporarily  from the lists above, where they originally appeared. I ve not always given a reason as I ve not studied them sufficiently closely. But, you have to draw a line somewhere. </li><li>I m well aware that the cut has not been sufficiently rigorous. Further items beyond the items below are likely to be culled when I come to process them. <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12266.htm">Scheffler (Samuel) - The Independence and Distinctness of the Personal Point of View</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1019_9">Scheffler</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1019_9"></A></li><li>Further items to be supplied </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Links to Notes</u></b><ol type="1"><li><a name="28"></a>Baker,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Constitution,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Constitution View,</li><li><a name="28"></a>First-Person Perspective,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Mereology,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Dion and Theon,</li><li>Others to be supplied? </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Final Remarks</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This is <a name="28"></a>work in progress. </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_1019_4"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 4</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1019_6"></A><B>Footnote 6</B>: While Baker s understanding of constitution is distinct from a mereological one, it is necessary to understand mereology. <a name="On-Page_Link_1019_7"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 7</B>: I m not sure whether this section belongs here, but it must go somewhere!<a name="On-Page_Link_1019_8"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 8</B>: This may properly belong to one of the Chapters on Animalism. <a name="On-Page_Link_1019_9"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 9</B>: This Chapter has rather more to do with distributive ethics than personal identity or the FPP. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 05/04/2016 23:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 9: (Thesis - Chapter 08 (Arguments against Animalism))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>A discussion of the arguments against animalism, as given by those of anti-animalist persuasion and defended by the principal animalists (with a focus on <A HREF = "../../../Authors/O/Author_Olson (Eric).htm">Eric Olson</A>), with a critique. </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages. </li><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks. </li></ul> <BR><hr><BR><u><b>Chapter Introduction</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1020_3">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>3</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1020_3"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going. </li><li>I ve not been overly careful to segregate the reading-list of this Chapter from that of <a name="28"></a>Chapter 6. I will address the segregation in due course. There will, in any case, be some overlap. <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14448.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Big-Tent Metaphysics</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20174.htm">Belshaw (Christopher) - My Beginnings</A>", Belshaw</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6076.htm">Berglund (Stefan) - Animalism</A>", Berglund</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7623.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - Animalism, Dicephalus, and Borderline Cases</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1375.htm">Braine (David) - The Human Person: Animal and Spirit</A>", Braine</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4340.htm">Dainton (Barry) - Review of Eric Olson's 'The Human Animal: Personal Identity Without Psychology'</A>", Dainton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5629.htm">Francescotti (Robert) - Fetuses, corpses and the psychological approach to personal identity</A>", Francescotti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3741.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Animalism and Reductionism</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7611.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Some Thoughts on Animalism</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4719.htm">Gendler (Tamar Szabo) - Review of Eric Olson's 'The Human Animal: Personal Identity Without Psychology'</A>", Gendler</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4536.htm">Hershenov (David) - Do Dead Bodies Pose a Problem for Biological Approaches to Personal Identity</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5596.htm">Hershenov (David) - Olson's Embryo Problem</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6635.htm">Hershenov (David) - The Death of a Person</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5593.htm">Hershenov (David) - The Problematic Role of  Irreversibility in the Definition of Death</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14535.htm">Hudson (Hud) - I am Not an Animal!</A>", Hudson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20170.htm">Koch-Hershenov (Rose J.) - Conjoined Twins and the Biological Account of Personal Identity</A>", Koch-Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5999.htm">Larkin (William S.) - Persons, Animals, and Bodies</A>", Larkin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5910.htm">Lockwood (Michael) - When Does a Life Begin?</A>", Lockwood</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5102.htm">Mackie (David) - Personal Identity and Dead People</A>", Mackie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14449.htm">Markosian (Ned) - Three Problems for Olson's Account of Personal Identity</A>", Markosian</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20708.htm">Moran (Alexander P.) - Animalism and the Thinking Parts Problem</A>", Moran</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4758.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Animalism Versus Lockeanism: A Current Controversy</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5035.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Animalism versus Lockeanism: Reply to Mackie</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_459.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Arguments Against Animalism: Comments on L.R.Baker 'Persons & Bodies'</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3973.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Persons, Animals and Human Beings</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16829.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Persons, Animals and Human Beings (2010)</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2929.htm">Olson (Eric), Etc. - Abstracta Special Issue on 'The Human Animal'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5110.htm">Olson (Eric) - Animalism and the Corpse Problem</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18372.htm">Olson (Eric) - Animalism and the Remnant-Person Problem</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4426.htm">Olson (Eric) - Reply to Lynne Rudder Baker</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20707.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Metaphysical Implications of Conjoined Twining</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18995.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Person and the Corpse</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5906.htm">Persson (Ingmar) - Our Identity and the Separability of Person and Organism</A>", Persson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5242.htm">Rosenberg (Jay) - Bodies, Corpses, and Chunks of Matter: A Reply to Carter</A>", Rosenberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4720.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Review of Eric Olson's 'The Human Animal: Personal Identity Without Psychology'</A>", Shoemaker_S</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4931.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Self, Body, and Coincidence</A>", Shoemaker_S</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2637.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - Personal Identity and Brain Transplants</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2056.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - Persons, Animals, and Bodies</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7612.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - Some Objections to Animalism</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20706.htm">Sutton (Catherine S.) - The Supervenience Solution to the Too-Many-Thinkers Problem</A>", Sutton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2593.htm">Thornton (Mark) - Same Human Being, Same Person?</A>", Thornton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5167.htm">Unger (Peter) - The Survival of the Sentient</A>", Unger</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4723.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Material People</A>", Zimmerman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14450.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Problems for Animalism</A>", Zimmerman </li></ul></li><li>Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters. </li><li>The motivation for these works is as follows:- <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u> <ol type="1"><li>There had already been a lot of cutting in the various selections of the original reading list  the reading lists attached to the Notes run on and on  and these items just represent the works in my possession (though I have sought out all that I ve heard of that look relevant). </li><li>However, the items in the lists following were given some attention, and have been culled  at least temporarily  from the lists above, where they originally appeared. I ve not always given a reason as I ve not studied them sufficiently closely. But, you have to draw a line somewhere. </li><li>I m well aware that the cut has not been sufficiently rigorous. Further items beyond the items below are likely to be culled when I come to process them. <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Links to <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1020_5">Notes</A></U><SUB>5</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1020_5"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li><a name="28"></a>Animalism - Objections,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Animalism. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Final Remarks</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This is <a name="28"></a>work in progress. </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_1020_3"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 3</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1020_5"></A><B>Footnote 5</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>There is effectively a 1-1-match between this Chapter and the Note <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_112.htm">Animalism  Objections</a>.</li><li>I imagine that this Chapter will be more focussed and less exploratory than the Note. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 05/04/2016 23:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 10: (Thesis - Chapter 09 (Arguments against the Constitution View))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b> <ul type="disc"><li>A discussion of the arguments against the Constitution View, focusing on the principal animalists, with a critique. </li><li>In particular, I intend to critique Olson s <a name="28"></a> thinking animal argument against the Constitution View (though I think this argument is unnecessary for Olson to establish the case for Animalism).</li></ul> <BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages. </li><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks. </li></ul> <BR><hr><BR><u><b>Chapter Introduction</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1021_4">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1021_4"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going. <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3304.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder), Etc. - E-Symposium on 'Persons & Bodies: A Constitution View'</A>", Baker Etc</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5196.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Brief Reply to Rosenkrantz's Comments on my 'The Ontological Status of Persons'</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3681.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - The Coherence Of the Constitution View of Human Persons</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5984.htm">Burke (Michael) - Persons and Bodies: How to Avoid the New Dualism</A>", Burke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2441.htm">De Waal (Frans) - The Ape and the Sushi Master: Cultural Reflections of a Primatologist</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1021_5">De Waal</A></U><SUB>5</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1021_5"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_458.htm">Garrett (Brian) - The Story of I: Some Comments on L.R.Baker 'Persons & Bodies'</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7744.htm">Olson (Eric) - Review of Lynne Baker's 'Persons And Bodies'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_460.htm">Olson (Eric) - Thinking Animals and the Constitution View</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12012.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Constitution</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7734.htm">Olson (Eric) - Thinking Animals and the Reference of 'I'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5635.htm">Pereboom (Derek) - On Baker's Persons and Bodies</A>", Peerboom</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5195.htm">Rosenkrantz (Gary) - Reflections on the Ontological Status of Persons</A>", Rosenkrantz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19852.htm">Sider (Ted) - Review of Lynne Rudder Baker, Persons and Bodies</A>", Sider</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5633.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Persons and Bodies: Constitution Without Mereology?</A>", Zimmerman </li></ul></li><li>There s a Christian turf-war between Baker and Zimmerman which may be worth including:- <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7766.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Christians Should Affirm Mind-Body Dualism</A>",</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7299.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Christians Should Reject Mind-Body Dualism</A>",</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11688.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Reply to Baker's 'Christians Should Reject Mind-Body Dualism'</A>", and</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7300.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Reply to Zimmerman s 'Christians Should Affirm Mind-Body Dualism'</A>". </li></ul></li><li>I ve not been overly careful to segregate the reading-list of this Chapter from that of <a name="28"></a>Chapter 7. I will address the segregation in due course. There will, in any case, be some overlap. </li><li>Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters. </li><li>The motivation for these works is as follows:- <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u> <ol type="1"><li>There had already been a lot of cutting in the various selections of the original reading list  the reading lists attached to the Notes run on and on  and these items just represent the works in my possession (though I have sought out all that I ve heard of that look relevant). </li><li>However, the items in the lists following were given some attention, and have been culled  at least temporarily  from the lists above, where they originally appeared. I ve not always given a reason as I ve not studied them sufficiently closely. But, you have to draw a line somewhere. </li><li>I m well aware that the cut has not been sufficiently rigorous. Further items beyond the items below are likely to be culled when I come to process them. <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Links to Notes</u></b><ol type="1"><li><a name="28"></a>Constitution View  Objections,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Thinking Animal Argument,</li><li>Others to be supplied? </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Final Remarks</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This is <a name="28"></a>work in progress. </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_1021_4"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 4</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1021_5"></A><B>Footnote 5</B>: Argues against human uniqueness. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 05/04/2016 23:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 11: (Thesis - Chapter 10 (Thought Experiments))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>Any account of personal identity needs to give an account of what is going on in the various thought experiments that have been thought relevant to the topic. It s also the area that s most fun. Indeed, I think that the entire Thesis will be an exercise in inference to the best explanation. It needs to account for our intuitions (if there is a universal response) or explain them away as confused. I will firstly briefly consider the propriety of using thought experiments in this domain of enquiry, and then consider the usual suspects, including the following:- <ol type="1"><li>Fission</li><li>Fusion</li><li>Replication</li><li><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1022_1">Commissurotomy</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1022_1"></A></li><li><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1022_2">Multiple Personality Disorder</A></U><SUB>2</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1022_2"></A></li><li>Brain-state Transfer</li><li><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1022_3">Brain Transplants</A></U><SUB>3</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1022_3"></A> </li><li>Teletransportation</li><li>Siliconisation</li><li>Transhumanism </li></ol> </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages. </li><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks. </li></ul> <BR><hr><BR><u><b>Chapter Introduction</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1022_6">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1022_6"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going. </li><li>I have segregated the papers by sub-topic, but some would fit into more than one category. </li><li><b>Theory</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3804.htm">Baillie (James) - Methodology Matters</A>", Baillie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11400.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Personal Identity and Personal Survival</A>", Brennan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5660.htm">Brook (J.A.) - Imagination, Possibility, and Personal Identity</A>", Brook</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20426.htm">Brown (James Robert) & Fehige (Yiftach) - Thought Experiments</A>", Brown</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7617.htm">Cohnitz (Daniel) - Personal Identity and the Methodology of Imaginary Cases</A>", Cohnitz</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5929.htm">Gale (Richard) - On Some Pernicious Thought-Experiments</A>", Gale</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1393.htm">Harris (Henry) - An Experimentalist Looks at Identity</A>", Harris</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3014.htm">James (Susan) - Feminism in Philosophy of Mind: The Question of Personal Identity</A>", James</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16121.htm">Papineau (David) - The Importance of Philosophical Intuition</A>", Papineau</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1358.htm">Sorensen (Roy) - Thought Experiments</A>", Sorensen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_159.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Real People: Personal Identity Without Thought Experiments</A>", Wilkes</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5138.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Beyond Horses and Oak Trees: A New Theory of Individuation for Living Entities</A>" (Section 4), Wilson </li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1022_7">Brain State Transfers</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1022_7"></A></b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4982.htm">Beck (Simon) - Back To The Self And The Future</A>", Beck</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11679.htm">Campbell (Scott) - Can You Survive a Brain-Zap</A>", Campbell</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5145.htm">Long (Douglas) - The Bodies of Persons</A>", Long</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3972.htm">Noonan (Harold) - The Self and the Future</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5254.htm">Odegard (Douglas) - Personal and Bodily Identity</A>", Odegard</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5401.htm">Perry (John) - Williams on The Self and the Future</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_423.htm">Williams (Bernard) - The Self and the Future</A>", Williams</li></ul></li><li><b>Brain Transplants</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20196.htm">Northoff (G.) - Do Brain Tissue Transplants Alter Personal Identity? Inadequacies of Some 'Standard' Arguments</A>", Northoff</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6092.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Multiple Identity</A>", Puccetti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6028.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Brain Transplants and Personal Identity</A>", Puccetti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6029.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Mr. Brennan on Person's Brains</A>", Puccetti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5975.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Remembering the Past of Another</A>", Puccetti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2637.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - Personal Identity and Brain Transplants</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3620.htm">Unger (Peter) - A Physically Based Approach To Our Survival</A>". Unger</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3547.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Brain Transplants</A>", Van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_544.htm">Wiggins (David) - Locke, Butler and the Stream of Consciousness: And Men as Natural Kind</A>", Wiggins</li></ul></li><li><b>Commissurotomy</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3806.htm">Baillie (James) - Commissurotomy and the Unity of Mind</A>", Baillie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1320.htm">Marks (Charles) - Commissurotomy, Consciousness and Unity of Mind</A>", Marks</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_190.htm">Nagel (Thomas) - Brain Bisection and the Unity of Consciousness</A>", Nagel</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_08/PaperSummary_8052.htm">Parkin (Alan) - The Split Brain</A>", Parkin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5166.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Brain Bisection and Personal Identity</A>", Puccetti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3687.htm">Sperry (Roger W.) - Hemisphere Deconnection and the Unity in Conscious Awareness</A>", Sperry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6930.htm">Tye (Michael) - Split Brains</A>", Tye</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3548.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Two Problems About Personal Identity: Memory and Commissurotomy</A>", Van Inwagen </li></ul></li><li><b>Fission</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4735.htm">Carter (William) - Artifacts of Theseus: Fact and Fission</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_802.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Where Am I?</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3743.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Fission</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_556.htm">Martin (Raymond) - Fission Rejuvenated</A>", Martin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5103.htm">Merricks (Trenton) - Fission and Personal Identity Over Time</A>", Merricks</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1479.htm">Nussbaum (Martha) & Sunstein (Cass), Eds. - Clones and Clones: Facts and Fantasies About Human Cloning</A>", Nussbaum&Sunstein</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_328.htm">Perry (John) - Can the Self Divide?</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6534.htm">Roache (Rebecca) - A Defence of Quasi-Memory</A>", Roache</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3434.htm">Robinson (Denis) - Can Amoebae Divide Without Multiplying?</A>", Robinson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4941.htm">Rovane (Carol) - Branching Self-Consciousness</A>", Rovane</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3623.htm">Unger (Peter) - Fission and the Focus of One's Life</A>", Unger</li></ul></li><li><b>Fusion</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8899.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - Fission, Fusion and Intrinsic Facts</A>", Hawley</li></ul></li><li><b>Multiple Personality Disorder</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1350.htm">Braude (Stephen) - First Person Plural: Multiple Personality and the Philosophy of Mind</A>", Braude</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3690.htm">Braude (Stephen) - Multiple Personality and the Structure of the Self</A>", Braude</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3689.htm">Hilgard (Ernest R.) - Dissociative Phenomena and the Hidden Observer</A>", Hilgard</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4318.htm">Hirsch (Eli) - Divided Minds</A>", Hirsch</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_855.htm">Humphrey (Nicholas) & Dennett (Daniel) - Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality</A>", Humpfrey&Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5314.htm">Lizza (John) - Multiple Personality and Personal Identity Revisited</A>", Lizza</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_652.htm">Radden (Jennifer) - Divided Minds and Successive Selves: Ethical Issues in Disorders of Identity and Personality</A>", Radden</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3669.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Fugues, Hypnosis, and Multiple Personality</A>", Wilkes</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15160.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Multiple Personality and Personal Identity</A>", Wilkes</li></ul></li><li><b>Replication</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3969.htm">Noonan (Harold) - The Reduplication Problem</A>", Noonan </li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1022_8">Siliconisation</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1022_8"></A></b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21651.htm">Cerullo (Michael A.) - Uploading and Branching Identity</A>", Cerullo</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8196.htm">Tye (Michael) - Can Anyone Else Feel My Pains?</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1022_9">Tye</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1022_9"></A> </li></ul></li><li><b>Teletransportation</b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11400.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Personal Identity and Personal Survival</A>", Brennan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11406.htm">Brennan (Andrew) - Survival</A>", Brennan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20323.htm">Elliot (Robert) - How to Travel Faster than Light</A>", Elliot</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9803.htm">Seibt (Johanna) - Fission, Sameness, and Survival: Parfit s Branch Line Argument Revisited</A>", Seibt</li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1022_10">Transhumanism</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1022_10"></A></b><ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6319.htm">Bostrom (Nick) - Are You Living in a Computer Simulation?</A>", Bostrom</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6321.htm">Bostrom (Nick) - The Simulation Argument: Reply to Weatherson</A>", Bostrom</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6322.htm">Bostrom (Nick) - How Long Before Superintelligence?</A>", Bostrom</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21651.htm">Cerullo (Michael A.) - Uploading and Branching Identity</A>", Cerullo</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8477.htm">Chalmers (David) - The Matrix as Metaphysics</A>", Chalmers</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6318.htm">Weatherson (Brian) - Are You a Sim?</A>", Weatherson </li></ul></li><li>Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters. </li><li>The motivation for these works is as follows:- <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied.<BR> </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u> <ol type="1"><li>There had already been a lot of cutting in the various selections of the original reading list  the reading lists attached to the Notes run on and on  and these items just represent the works in my possession (though I have sought out all that I ve heard of that look relevant). </li><li>However, the items in the lists following were given some attention, and have been culled  at least temporarily  from the lists above, where they originally appeared. I ve not always given a reason as I ve not studied them sufficiently closely. But, you have to draw a line somewhere. </li><li>I m well aware that the cut has not been sufficiently rigorous. Further items beyond the items below are likely to be culled when I come to process them. <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6284.htm">Kaku (Michio) - The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest To Understand, Enhance and Empower the Mind</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1022_11">Kaku</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1022_11"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15141.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Immortality</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1022_12">Shoemaker</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1022_12"></A> </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Links to Notes</u></b><ol type="1"><li><a name="28"></a>Propriety of Thought Experiments</li><li>Principal Examples:- <ul type="disc"><li><a name="28"></a>Fission</li><li><a name="28"></a>Fusion </li><li><a name="28"></a>Replication </li><li><a name="28"></a>Commissurotomy</li><li><a name="28"></a>Multiple Personality Disorder</li><li><a name="28"></a>Brain-state Transfers</li><li><a name="28"></a>Brain Transplants</li><li><a name="28"></a>Teletransportation</li><li><a name="28"></a>Siliconisation</li><li><a name="28"></a>Transhumanism. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Final Remarks</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This is <a name="28"></a>work in progress. </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_1022_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: This is more an experiment than a thought-experiment, as commissurotomies are actual. <a name="On-Page_Link_1022_2"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 2</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Again, this is  allegedly  an existent pathology rather than a TE.</li><li>Moreover, it might be better situated in Chapter 9 (<A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1021.htm">Click here for Note</A>) as a critique of the idea of an individuating FPP. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1022_3"></A><B>Footnote 3</B>: We need to distinguish Whole-Brain Transplants (WBTs) from single or double Cerebrum transplants, and these from brain-tissue transplants, which shade off into Brain State Transfers. <a name="On-Page_Link_1022_6"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 6</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1022_7"></A><B>Footnote 7</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>There must be many more papers than the classic one by Williams (and commentaries thereon)  I just haven t got them correctly categorised. </li><li>Under this head should be included references to  Brain Zaps and the like. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1022_8"></A><B>Footnote 8</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This must be somewhere in "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_156.htm">Unger (Peter) - Identity, Consciousness and Value</A>", where it is referred to as  zippering . </li><li>I intend to re-read this book as part of the work for <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_755.htm">Chapter 1</a>, so I will find it then, I hope. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1022_9"></A><B>Footnote 9</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Tye seems to be discussing brain-partition, with silicon transceivers. But he uses Unger s term  zippering . </li><li>He is indebted to <A HREF = "../../../Authors/Z/Author_Zuboff (Arnold).htm">Arnold Zuboff</A>, who may be worth following up. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1022_10"></A><B>Footnote 10</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is different to the other notions, in which we are and remain organic. </li><li>Here  we  that is, our psychology  is supposed uploaded to a computer. </li><li>Most of the papers in my possession on the subject seem to assume this is possible, and argue whether it is  unbeknownst to us  actual. </li><li>Olson argues against the metaphysical possibility in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20229.htm">Marshall (Richard) & Olson (Eric) - Eric T. Olson: The Philosopher with No Hands</A>", pp. 61-2. </li><li>This is associated with <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_56.htm"> Brains in Vats </a>. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_1022_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: I ve read this book, but it s insufficiently philosophical for its arguments  such as they are  to be worth considering as a priority. <a name="On-Page_Link_1022_12"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 12</B>: Cover in the <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1023.htm">next Chapter</a>. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 05/04/2016 23:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 12: (Thesis - Chapter 11 (Resurrection))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><b>Abstract</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>If mind-body substance dualism is false, and we are identical to human animals, then the only possibility for post-mortem existence is some form of bodily resurrection. </li><li>Since the body is destroyed at death, it would seem that any resurrected individual could only be a copy of the original. It might think of itself as the resurrected pre-mortem individual, but it would be wrong. </li><li>Consideration of arguments by <A HREF = "../../../Authors/V/Author_Van Inwagen (Peter).htm">Peter Van Inwagen</A> in this respect. </li><li>This chapter is likely to be controversial, so needs to be very carefully argued, and factually correct concerning what is actually believed by intellectually-aware Christians and Muslims (unlike what seems to be the case with most swipes against religion). </li><li>Maybe I should also cover reincarnation. </li></ul><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Research Methodology</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for a generic statement of how I intend to pursue each Chapter. </li><li>The method is broken down into 12, possibly iterative, stages. </li><li>Follow <a name="28"></a>this Link for my progress dashboard on these tasks. </li></ul> <BR><hr><BR><u><b>Chapter Introduction</u></b><ol type="1"><li>While I wish in this chapter to consider seriously the religious hope of resurrection, I do not want to get side-tracked onto matters of Scriptural exegesis, or into evidential matters of whether particular resurrections  specifically of Jesus  happened or not. In this regard, I m interested only in what they take resurrection to be, and whether they provide any detailed metaphysical account of how it is supposed to work. </li><li>As in the chapter on <a name="28"></a>Thought Experiments, this chapter is partly aimed at checking how (my version of) animalism copes with projected situations. As such, I may extend this to other posited versions of post-mortem survival, though most are ruled out by the essentially physical nature of the human person as proposed by animalism. </li><li>While not wanting to get too far off topic, especially at the end of the thesis, I want to consider some of the ethical consequences of adopting Animalism with  I presume  the lack of hope of post-mortem existence. Hence the reading material on death itself and on  matters of life and death . </li><li>Further text to be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Main Text</u></b><ol type="1"><li>To be supplied. </li></ol><BR><HR><BR><u><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1023_4">Links to Books / Papers to be Addressed</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1023_4"></A></u></b><ol type="1"><li>In this Chapter I will consider the following papers or book chapters (together with some others referenced by these). There are doubtless many more that are relevant and which will be addressed in the course of the thesis, but these are probably sufficient to get us going.</li><li>I have divided those on the core topic of resurrection into those that are from a religio-philosophical perspective, rather than pure philosophy. In general, those written by professional philosophers are in the latter section, even if addressed to a religious audience. </li><li>As the topic of death in itself  and the ethical consequences of death without post-mortem survival - are important issues, I have reading lists for these as well. </li><li>Finally, in order to diagnose death, we need to know what life is! I ve not really investigated a reading-list for this. </li><li><b>Life</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6302.htm">Pross (Addy) - What is Life?: How Chemistry Becomes Biology</A>", Pross</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_786.htm">Schrodinger (Erwin) - What is Life?</A>", Schrodinger</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8524.htm">Sterelny (Kim) & Griffiths (Paul) - What Is Life?</A>", Sterelny&Griffiths</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1337.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities</A>", Wilson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_270.htm">Wollheim (Richard) - The Thread of Life</A>", Wollheim </li></ul></li><li><b>Death</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7296.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Death and the Afterlife</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_171.htm">Blackmore (Susan) - Dying to Live: Near-Death Experiences</A>", Blackmore</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_89.htm">Feldman (Fred) - Confrontations with the Reaper: A Philosophical Study of the Nature and Value of Death</A>", Feldman<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12081.htm">Cushing (Simon) - Fred Feldman: Confrontations with the Reaper</A>", Cushing</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4171.htm">Fenwick (Peter) & Fenwick (Elizabeth) - The Truth in the Light: An Investigation of Over 300 Near-Death Experiences</A>", Fenwick</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_560.htm">Fischer (John Martin), Ed. - The Metaphysics of Death</A>", Fischer</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5009.htm">Fischer (John Martin) & Speak (Daniel) - Death and the Psychological Conception of Personal Identity</A>", Fischer+Speak</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3384.htm">Green (James W.) - Beyond the Good Death: The Anthropology of Modern Dying</A>", Green</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4048.htm">Hick (John) - Death and Eternal Life</A>", Hick</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3758.htm">Kagan (Shelly) - Death</A>", Kagan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5251.htm">Lamb (David) - Diagnosing Death</A>", Lamb</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1398.htm">Lizza (John) - Persons, Humanity, & the Definition of Death</A>", Lizza</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19921.htm">Luper (Steven) - Death</A>", Luper</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3643.htm">Nagel (Thomas) - Birth, Death, and the Meaning of Life</A>", Nagel</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_180.htm">Nagel (Thomas) - Death</A>", Nagel</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18372.htm">Olson (Eric) - Animalism and the Remnant-Person Problem</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1344.htm">Rosenberg (Jay) - Thinking Clearly About Death</A>", Rosenberg </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12615.htm">Strawson (Galen) - Why I Have No Future</A>", <a name="28"></a>Strawson_G </li></ul></li><li><b><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1023_6">Death and Ethics</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1023_6"></A></b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16564.htm">Donnelly (John) - Death and Ivan Ilych</A>", Donnelly</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4033.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Surviving Death</A>", Johnston</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_396.htm">Kamm (F.M.) - Morality, Mortality (Vol. 1) - Death and Whom to Save from It</A>", Kamm</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1367.htm">McMahan (Jeff) - The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life</A>", McMahan<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5804.htm">Mulgan (Tim) - Critical Notice of Jeff McMahan's The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life</A>", Mulgan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1392.htm">Regan (Tom), Ed. - Matters of Life and Death: New Introductory Essays in Moral Philosophy</A>", Regan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_964.htm">Singer (Peter) - Rethinking Life & Death - The Collapse Our Traditional Ethics</A>", Singer </li></ul></li><li><b>Resurrection - Purely Philosophical</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7293.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Material Persons and the Doctrine of Resurrection</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6658.htm">Braude (Stephen) - Personal Identity and Post-Mortem Survival</A>", Braude</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3530.htm">Carruthers (Peter) - After-Life for Physicalists</A>", Carruthers</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11991.htm">Jones (Nicholas K.) - Too Many Cats: The Problem of the Many and the Metaphysics of Vagueness</A>", Carter</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1383.htm">Corcoran (Kevin), Ed. - Soul, Body and Survival: Essays on the Metaphysics of Human Persons</A>", Corcoran</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_573.htm">Edwards (Paul), Ed. - Immortality</A>", Edwards</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_205.htm">Edwards (Paul) - Reincarnation: A Critical Examination</A>", Edwards<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7584.htm">Martin (Raymond) - Review of Paul Edwards. Reincarnation: A Critical Examination</A>", Martin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_472.htm">Flew (Anthony), Ed. - Body, Mind and Death</A>", Flew</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1477.htm">Flew (Anthony) - Merely Mortal?</A>", Flew</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_05/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_5722.htm">Gasser (Georg), Ed. - Personal Identity and Resurrection: How Do We Survive Our Death?</A>", Gasser & especially <ul type="square"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19037.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons and the Metaphysics of Resurrection</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19033.htm">Hudson (Hud) - Multiple Location and Single Location Resurrection</A>", Hudson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18989.htm">Olson (Eric) - Immanent Causation and Life After Death</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19031.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Bodily Resurrection: The Falling Elevator Model Revisited</A>", Zimmerman </li></ul></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16893.htm">Grossman (Lev) - 2045: The Year Man Becomes Immortal</A>", Grossman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5844.htm">Hershenov (David) - Van Inwagen, Zimmerman, and the Materialist Conception of Resurrection</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3632.htm">Hudson (Hud) - Nothing But Dust and Ashes</A>", Hudson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6334.htm">Martin (L. Michael) & Augustine (Keith) - The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death</A>", Martin&Augustine</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19077.htm">Merricks (Trenton) - The Resurrection of the Body</A>", Merricks</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16697.htm">Olding (A.) - Resurrection Bodies and Resurrection Worlds</A>", Olding</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19915.htm">Olson (Eric) - Life After Death and the Devastation of the Grave</A>", Olding</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2717.htm">Penelhum (Terence), Ed. - Immortality</A>", Penelhum</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_133.htm">Penelhum (Terence) - Survival and Disembodied Existence</A>", Penelhum, especially & <BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4065.htm">Penelhum (Terence) - Resurrection</A>", Penelhum</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1366.htm">Perrett (Roy W.) - Death and Immortality</A>", Perrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_651.htm">Perry (John) - A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_13/Abstract_13229.htm">Peters (Ted) - Resurrection of the Very Embodied Soul?</A>", Peters (Neuroscience + Soul)</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4036.htm">Phillips (D.Z.) - Death and Immortality</A>", Phillips</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_881.htm">Plato, Gallop (David) - Phaedo</A>", Plato, </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20197.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - The Conquest of Death</A>", Puccetti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2800.htm">Russell (Bertrand) - Do We Survive Death?</A>", Russell</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15141.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Immortality</A>", Shoemaker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1403.htm">Tipler (Frank) - The Physics of Immortality: Modern Cosmology, God and the Resurrection of the Dead</A>", Tippler</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16542.htm">Thomas (Janice L.) - What matters for survival and the logical possibility of resurrection</A>", Thomas</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19917.htm">van Dyke (Christina) - Human Identity, Immanent Causal Relations, and the Principle of Non-Repeatability: Thomas Aquinas on the Bodily Resurrection</A>", van Dyke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4934.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - The Possibility of Resurrection</A>", van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16760.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - I Look for the Resurrection of the Dead and the Life of the World to Come</A>", van Inwagen </li></ul></li><li><b> Resurrection - Religio-Philosophical</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1781.htm">Badham (Paul) & Badham (Linda) - Immortality or Extinction</A>", especially (maybe) & Badham<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_13/PaperSummary_13234.htm">Badham (Paul) & Badham (Linda) - The Meaning of Resurrection, Immortality and Eternal Life</A>",</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2669.htm">Bullinger (E.W.) - The Resurrection of the Body</A>", Bullinger</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_569.htm">Bynum (Caroline) - Resurrection of the Body in Western Christianity, 200 - 1336</A>", Bynum</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7765.htm">Day (Allan) & Martin (L. Michael) - Debate: Is It Rational for Christians to Believe in the Resurrection?</A>", Day+Martin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6301.htm">Dunne (John S.) - City of the Gods: A Study in Myth and Mortality</A>", Dunne</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2920.htm">Gillman (Neil) - The Death Of Death: Resurrection and Immortality in Jewish Thought</A>", Gillman</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3825.htm">Kerr (Fergus) - Immortal Longings: Versions of Transcending Humanity</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1023_7">Kerr</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1023_7"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6410.htm">Morison (Frank) - Who Moved the Stone?</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1023_8">Moris</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1023_8"></A> </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_17/Abstract_17108.htm">Wright (N.T.) - Can a Scientist Believe in the Resurrection?</A>", Wright </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_04/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_4031.htm">Wright (N.T.) - The Resurrection of the Son of God</A>", Wright</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3815.htm">Wyatt (John) - Matters of Life and Death</A>", Wyatt </li></ul></li><li>Many aspects of these papers will need to be either ignored or reserved for other chapters. </li><li>The motivation for these works is as follows:- <ul type="disc"><li>Gasser is the most important work I need to address. </li><li>Wright s big book (hopefully) supplies all there is from the Christian side  even though the focus is on a specific  and theologically and metaphysically special  resurrection. </li><li>Bynum and Gillman provide background information from the Christian and Jewish perspectives, respectively.</li><li>Badham is a rather elementary Christian discussion, and may be rejected. </li><li>Corcoran is an important survey, already included in the reading for a couple of other Chapters. </li><li>Edwards, Flew and Penelhum are useful surveys of older material, which is useful just to read for the appropriate background. There is some considerable overlap in the selections. </li><li>I suppose I need to discuss death itself, hence Kagan, McMahan, Regan & Wyatt  though skipping the ethical bits.</li><li>Perrett and Tippler may be a little off-centre, and I may reject them on closer inspection. </li><li>The other individual papers  especially those by van Inwagen and Shoemaker  are probably important, but justification is to be supplied.</li></ul></li><li>Books / Papers Rejected: There are a number of works that I have in my possession that I considered investigating, but in the end decided not to. They are listed here, with reasons for rejection. Of course, there are very many others less tempting that appear in the topical reading lists but are not specifically mentioned here. <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u>The Cut</u> <ol type="1"><li>There had already been a lot of cutting in the various selections of the original reading list  the reading lists attached to the Notes run on and on  and these items just represent the works in my possession (though I have sought out all that I ve heard of that look relevant). </li><li>However, the items in the lists following were given some attention, and have been culled  at least temporarily  from the lists above, where they originally appeared. I ve not always given a reason as I ve not studied them sufficiently closely. But, you have to draw a line somewhere. </li><li>I m well aware that the cut has not been sufficiently <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1023_9">rigorous</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1023_9"></A>. Further items beyond the items below are likely to be culled when I come to process them. <ul type="disc"><li>To be supplied & </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><hr><BR><u><b>Links to Notes</u></b><ul type="disc"><li>A lot of my notes seem to mention resurrection and the Notes fall into at least two <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1023_10">categories</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1023_10"></A>:- <ol type="1"><li>Thesis:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="28"></a>Resurrection,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Life,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Death,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Corpses, </li><li><a name="28"></a>Immortality,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Reincarnation,</li><li><a name="28"></a>NDEs,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Makropulos Case,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Life after Death. </ol></li><li>Philosophy of religion:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="28"></a>Resurrection,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Resurrection (Metaphysics),</li><li><a name="28"></a>1 Corinthians 15,</li><li><a name="28"></a>Heythrop.</ol> </li></ol></li></ul><BR><HR><BR><u><b>Final Remarks</u></b><ol type="1"><li>This is <a name="28"></a>work in progress. </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_1023_4"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 4</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>See the section on Research Methodology for what is to be done with these.</li><li>The author s surname is repeated in the text to make it easier for me to see what s going on in the encoded text I work on. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1023_6"></A><B>Footnote 6</B>: <ol type="1"><li>The topic of  Death and Ethics is already a bit tangential to my thesis, but there s a set of questions  of which two are the most important, namely:- <ul type="disc"><li>Why is death bad (for the deceased)?, and</li><li>Can the dead be harmed (assuming they no longer exist)? </li></ul>  in which I have an interest, and on which I wonder whether my views on Personal Identity have anything to say. </li><li>Therefore, I park here a bunch of papers on these topics (more on the second than the first) that may or may not get  processed :- <ul type="disc"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2431.htm">Brueckner (Anthony) & Fischer (John Martin) - Why Is Death Bad?</A>", Brueckner&Fischer </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20351.htm">Callahan (Joan C.) - On Harming the Dead</A>", Callahan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2430.htm">Feinberg (Joel) - Harm to Others</A>", Feinberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20357.htm">Grover (Dorothy) - Posthumous Harm</A>", Grover</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20355.htm">Hetherington (Stephen) - Deathly Harm</A>", Hetherington</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_10/Abstract_10630.htm">Kamm (F.M.) - Why Is Death Bad?</A>", Kamm</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20352.htm">Levenbook (Barbara Baum) - Harming the Dead, Once Again</A>", Levenbook</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20312.htm">Levenbook (Barbara Baum) - Harming Someone after His Death</A>", Levenbook</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16835.htm">Levenbook (Barbara Baum) - The Retroactivity Problem</A>", Levenbook</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19922.htm">Luper (Steven) - Annihilation</A>", Luper</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19921.htm">Luper (Steven) - Death</A>", Luper</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19923.htm">Luper (Steven) - Mortal Harm</A>", Luper</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11491.htm">Luper (Steven) - Past Desires and the Dead</A>", Luper</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20358.htm">Luper (Steven) - Posthumous Harm</A>", Luper</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2433.htm">Luper-Foy (Steven) - Annihilation</A>", Luper-Foy</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20354.htm">Marquis (Don) - Harming the Dead</A>", Marquis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2429.htm">Pitcher (George) - The Misfortunes of the Dead</A>", Pitcher</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20353.htm">Ridge (Michael) - Giving the Dead Their Due</A>", Ridge</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20356.htm">Solomon (David) - Is There Happiness after Death?</A>", Solomon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20350.htm">Taylor (James Stacey) - The Myth of Posthumous Harm</A>", Taylor </li></ul> </li></ol> <a name="On-Page_Link_1023_7"></A><B>Footnote 7</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Unlikely to have anything to do with resurrection, but I want an excuse for reading the book! </li><li>Maybe belongs to <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1020.htm">Chapter 8</a>. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1023_8"></A><B>Footnote 8</B>: Hardly philosophy, but important to have read!<a name="On-Page_Link_1023_9"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 9</B>: Especially as the list is currently empty! <a name="On-Page_Link_1023_10"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 10</B>: Write-up notes are accessible via the papers or books they are write-ups of. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 05/04/2016 23:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 13: (Thesis - Chapter 12 (Conclusion))</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> This Chapter will summarise the claims and arguments of the Thesis, namely that:- <ul type="disc"><li>We are human animals, </li><li>Human persons fall under phase sortals of the concept HUMAN ANIMAL,</li><li>The person is inseparable from the animal, </li><li>The animal is utterly destroyed at death, </li><li>Substance dualism is false, and </li><li>Consequently (given the sort of thing we are) resurrection or any other post-mortem survival is impossible for us. </li></ul><BR><BR>This is a <a name="28"></a>place-holder.</P><B>Note last updated:</B> 03/03/2016 06:05:46<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 14: (Thesis - Journals)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1026_1">Introduction</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1026_1"></A></u><ol type="1"><li>The reading-list for my Thesis is already too long to manage, and  I have no doubt  new material will always be coming up that I ought to be aware of. </li><li>Nevertheless, I ought also to keep up to date with what s going on in other areas of Analytic Philosophy, not to mention recent work relevant to my thesis. </li><li>As a Cambridge Alumnus, I have access to <A HREF = "http://www.jstor.org/" TARGET = "_top">JSTOR</A> (http://www.jstor.org/) and thereby to most of the philosophical journals. The access to the text is not up-to-date, but I ought to inculcate a discipline to:- <ul type="disc"><li>Check the TOCs of the most recent issues, and mark them for future interrogation, and</li><li>Check the most recent issues with content, and briefly review what s there, downloading where it looks useful. </li></ul></li><li>Cambridge has recently opened up <A HREF = "https://www.cambridge.org/core/" TARGET = "_top">Cambridge Core</A> (https://www.cambridge.org/core/) to alumni:- <ul type="disc"><li>This allows up-to-date access to 17 philosophy journals, including those listed below. </li><li>There are also a great number of books available for download. I need to avoid distraction, but if there s a book by CUP I need, and it s here, then it s a good place to go! Unfortunately, not all philosophy books published by CUP are available for free. </li><li>I need to adopt the same discipline as for JSTOR. </li></ul> </li></ol><BR><u>Relevant <em>Cambridge Core</em> Journals</u> <ol type="1"><li><A HREF = "https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/dialogue-canadian-philosophical-review-revue-canadienne-de-philosophie" TARGET = "_top">Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review</A> (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/dialogue-canadian-philosophical-review-revue-canadienne-de-philosophie)</li><li><A HREF = "https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/episteme" TARGET = "_top">Episteme</A> (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/episteme)</li><li><A HREF = "https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-american-philosophical-association" TARGET = "_top">Journal of the American Philosophical Association</A> (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-american-philosophical-association)</li><li><A HREF = "https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/philosophy" TARGET = "_top">Philosophy</A> (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/philosophy)</li><li><A HREF = "https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/royal-institute-of-philosophy-supplements" TARGET = "_top">Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplements</A> (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/royal-institute-of-philosophy-supplements)</li><li> <A HREF = "https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/think" TARGET = "_top">Think</A> (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/think)</li></ol><BR><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_1026_2">Relevant <em>JSTOR</em> Journals</A></U><SUB>2</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_1026_2"></A></u> <ol type="1"><li>American Philosophical Quarterly (1964-2010)</li><li>Analysis (1933-2008; 2009-2013) </li><li>Behavior and Philosophy (1990-2010)</li><li>The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (1950-2006; 2007-2013)</li><li>Canadian Journal of Philosophy (1971-2008)</li><li>Erkenntnis (1975-2010; 2011-2013)</li><li>Ethical Theory and Moral Practice (1998-2010; 2011-2013)</li><li>Human Studies (1978-2010; 2011-2013)</li><li>Hypathia (1986-2008; 2009-2012)</li><li>International Journal for Philosophy of Religion (1970-2010; 2011-2012)</li><li>The Journal of Ethics (1997-2010; 2011-2013)</li><li>Journal of Philosophical Logic 91972-2010; 2011-2013)</li><li>The Journal of Philosophy (1921-2008)</li><li>Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes (1939-2010)</li><li>Mind (1876-2006; 2007-2012)</li><li>The Monist (1890-2008; 2009-2014)</li><li>Nos (1967-2003; 2004-2012)</li><li>Philosophical Issues (1991-1998)</li><li>Philosophical Perspectives (1987-1995)</li><li>The Philosophical Quarterly (1950-2008; 2009-2012)</li><li>The Philosophical Review (1892-2008; 2009-2011)</li><li>Philosophical Studies (1950-2010; 2011-2013)</li><li>Philosophy (1931-2008; 2009-2012)</li><li>Philosophy and Phenomenal Research (1940-2008; 2009-2013)</li><li>Philosophy & Public Affairs (1971-2008; 2009-2013)</li><li>Phronesis (1955-2008; 2009-2013)</li><li>Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association (1927-2010)</li><li>Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (1887-2008; 2009-2013)</li><li>Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society: Supplementary Volumes (1918-2008; 2009-2013)</li><li>Religious Studies (1965-2008; 2009-2013)</li><li>The Review of Metaphysics (1947-2010)</li><li>Synthese (1936-2010; 2011-2013) </li></ol><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_1026_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>This Note used to include a (rather short) list of  interesting papers that I d discovered from the journals below, but missed the cut as far as reading was concerned. </li><li>I ve abandoned this idea as it s too much work for little benefit. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_1026_2"></A><B>Footnote 2</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>The dates for which I have access to free Text appear in brackets, with a second date-range where appropriate, for papers that can be purchased (or borrowed in hard-copy).</li><li>This list hasn t been updated since January 2015, so there may be new journals of interest, and the dates will have moved on by 3 years. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 05/04/2018 10:48:00<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 15: (What are We?)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_734_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_734_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>This Note cannot answer this question. Rather, it ll try to consider the sort of desiderata necessary for formulating and answering the question, and for deciding between the various candidate answers. </li><li>For the present, I just mention that I need to distinguish, as candidates for what we are, (human-)<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>animals, <BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>organisms, <BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>persons, <BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>bodies, <BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>beings and <BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>brains. </li><li>Additionally, I need to treat of <BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>selves <BR>and maybe contrast terms like  <A HREF = "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mensch" TARGET = "_top">Mensch</A> (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mensch) with  person .</li><li><B>We</B>: the use of the plural is significant. However, the determination of  we as  the sort of entity likely to be reading this paper isn t quite right, even though Dennett and others use similar expressions. Refer to the first parts of "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12473.htm">Brandom (Robert) - Toward a Normative Pragmatics</A>" in "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2711.htm">Brandom (Robert) - Making It Explicit: Reasoning, Representing & Discursive Commitment</A>" for inspiration on  We .</li><li><B>Intelligibility</B>: this is a reciprocal relationship. We find others (of  our sort) intelligible, and it is important that they find us intelligible in return. Does this thereby make R =  finds intelligible an equivalence relation, dividing the world into equivalence classes of mutually intelligible individuals, or does R come in degrees and fall prey to <a name="28"></a>Sorites paradoxes?</li><li>For my Thesis Chapter on this topic, follow this <a name="28"></a>link.</li><li>For a page of Links to this Note, <a href="Notes_734_Links.htm">Click here</a>.</li><li>The reading lists below are somewhat bloated; but, in general, only a small portion of the works cited needs to be addressed in the context of this question. No doubt the best place to start is<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12470.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We?</A>" (the Paper), followed by<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2710.htm">Olson (Eric) - What are We?</A>" (the Book). </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_734_11">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_734_11"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_734_12">include</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_734_12"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3803.htm">Baillie (James) - What Am I?</A>", Baillie</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14448.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Big-Tent Metaphysics</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3674.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons in the Material World</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5137.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Precis of 'Persons & Bodies: A Constitution View'</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14452.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Response to Eric Olson</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21333.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Review of 'What Are We? A Study in Personal Ontology' by Eric T. Olson</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4282.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - What Am I?</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21015.htm">Belshaw (Christopher) - Review of Paul Snowdon's 'Persons, Animals, Ourselves'</A>", Belshaw</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23284.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - Animalism (SEP)</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23281.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - We Are Animals</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12473.htm">Brandom (Robert) - Toward a Normative Pragmatics</A>", Brandom</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21758.htm">Claxton (Guy) - Intelligence in the Flesh - Limbering Up: An Introduction</A>", Claxton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5807.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Are we essentially persons? Olson, Baker, and a reply</A>", DeGrazia</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>", Johnston</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20173.htm">Liao (S. Matthew) - The Organism View Defended</A>", Liao</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5910.htm">Lockwood (Michael) - When Does a Life Begin?</A>", Lockwood</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3586.htm">Nozick (Robert) - The Identity of the Self: Introduction</A>", Nozick</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12470.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We?</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3583.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Nagel's Brain</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15140.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity, Rational Anticipation, and Self-Concern</A>", Shoemaker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21153.htm">Smith (Barry C.), Broks (Paul), Kennedy (A.L.) & Evans (Jules) - What Does It Mean to Be Me?</A>", Smith, etc.</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20779.htm">Bailey (Andrew M.) - The Elimination Argument</A>", Bailey</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20778.htm">Bailey (Andrew M.) - You Needn t be Simple</A>", Bailey</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22072.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Animalism vs. Constitutionalism</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1327.htm">Blackburn (Simon) - Has Kant Refuted Parfit?</A>", Blackburn</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6366.htm">Broks (Paul) - Into the Silent Land: Travels in Neuropsychology</A>", Broks</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15968.htm">Bynum (Terrell Ward) - Two Philosophers of the Information Age</A>", Bynum</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_13/Abstract_13016.htm">Chitty (Andrew) - First Person Plural Ontology and Praxis</A>", Chitty</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6335.htm">Corcoran (Kevin) - Rethinking Human Nature: A Christian Materialist Alternative to the Soul</A>", Corcoran</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9451.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Natural Freedom</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21113.htm">Hershenov (David) - Animals, Persons and Bioethics</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5838.htm">McMahan (Jeff) - Identity</A>", McMahan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3602.htm">Noe (Alva) - Out of Our Heads: Why You Are Not Your Brain, and Other Lessons from the Biology of Consciousness</A>", Noe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2710.htm">Olson (Eric) - What are We?</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_734_13">Olson</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_734_13"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20709.htm">Parfit (Derek) - We Are Not Human Beings</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7629.htm">Richards (Janet Radcliffe) - Internicene Strife</A>", Richards</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21010.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - [P & not-A] Cases: An Introduction</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21029.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - The Self and Personal Identity</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_550.htm">Taylor (Charles) - Responsibility For Self</A>", Taylor</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6980.htm">Wilson (Robert) - Persons, Social Agency, and Constitution</A>", Wilson</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="28"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_734_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_734_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_734_12"></A><B>Footnote 12</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_734_13"></A><B>Footnote 13</B>: |..||.|There are hosts of papers by Olson that touch on this topic, but this book, and the paper of the same name, are enough in this context. </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 09/05/2018 23:47:02<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 16: (Thinking Animal Argument)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_872_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_872_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>This argument is otherwise known as the  too many minds argument, the  too many thinkers argument, or <a name="28"></a>Olson s  master argument . </li><li>The basic idea is that a human animal thinks, and if it is not identical to the person, then we have too many thinkers  the animal and the person, unless we deny that one or other of them thinks, which is at the least very counter-intuitive. </li><li>Additional to this metaphysical problem, we have  Olson says  an epistemological question. Which one are we? The animal or the person?</li><li>I intend to cover this argument in <a name="28"></a>Chapter 6 (pro) and <a name="28"></a>Chapter 7 <a name="28"></a>(con) of my Thesis. It also features in <a name="28"></a>Chapter 9 as an argument <a name="28"></a>against the <a name="28"></a>Constitution View. </li><li>While I m inclined to accept <a name="28"></a>animalism, I think this argument stinks, and it does the cause for animalism no good by having it as the main argument in its <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_872_10">favour</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_872_10"></A>. <ol type="i"><li>This form of argument has been used by nihilists to argue that there are no ordinary <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_872_11">things</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_872_11"></A>. Since there <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_872_12">are</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_872_12"></A> ordinary things, there must be something wrong with it. </li><li><a name="28"></a>Baker and other supporters of the Constitution View have answers to the argument used as an argument against their view (along the lines of  thinking derivatively ). </li><li>There are also resources like  Lewis counting , as in <a name="28"></a>perdurantism where a  soon to fission entity is really two entities sharing stages. Our language is fit for purpose. </li></ol></li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_872_15">Links</A></U><SUB>15</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_872_15"></A> to this Note, <a href="Notes_872_Links.htm">Click here</a>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_872_16">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>16</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_872_16"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_872_17">include</A></U><SUB>17</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_872_17"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7312.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - When Do Persons Begin and End?</A>", Baker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23284.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - Animalism (SEP)</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23281.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - We Are Animals</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21314.htm">Coliva (Annalisa) - Review of Gasser & Stefan, Eds. - Personal Identity: Complex or Simple?</A>", Coliva</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21125.htm">Hershenov (David) - Review of Nancy Murphy's 'Bodies and Souls, or Spirited Bodies?'</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20229.htm">Marshall (Richard) & Olson (Eric) - Eric T. Olson: The Philosopher with No Hands</A>", Marshall & Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3973.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Persons, Animals and Human Beings</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_560.htm">Olson (Eric) - An Argument for Animalism</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5110.htm">Olson (Eric) - Animalism and the Corpse Problem</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5192.htm">Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_440.htm">Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity (Stanford, 2002)</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3506.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Human Animal: Introduction</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_460.htm">Olson (Eric) - Thinking Animals and the Constitution View</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7734.htm">Olson (Eric) - Thinking Animals and the Reference of 'I'</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7610.htm">Olson (Eric) - Warum wir Tiere sind (Why we are animals)</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15140.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity, Rational Anticipation, and Self-Concern</A>", Shoemaker_D</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21029.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - The Self and Personal Identity</A>", Snowdon</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_872_18">include</A></U><SUB>18</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_872_18"></A>:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19926.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - A New Argument for Animalism</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22076.htm">Blatti (Stephan) - Headhunters</A>", Blatti</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21113.htm">Hershenov (David) - Animals, Persons and Bioethics</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21122.htm">Hershenov (David) - Are There Too Many Hylomorphic Individuals Thinking about this Life and the Next?</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21923.htm">Hershenov (David) - Death, Persons, and Sparse Ontologies: The Problem of Too Many Dying Thinkers</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21102.htm">Hershenov (David) - Persons as Proper Parts of Organisms</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21104.htm">Hershenov (David) - Shoemaker's Problem of Too Many Thinkers</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21095.htm">Hershenov (David) - Who Doesn't Have a Problem of Too Many Thinkers?</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22079.htm">Johansson (Jens) - Animal Ethics</A>", Johansson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21089.htm">Madden (Rory) - Intention and the Self</A>", Madden</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23018.htm">Miller (Kristie) - 'Personal identity' minus the persons</A>", Miller</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16829.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Persons, Animals and Human Beings (2010)</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22090.htm">Noonan (Harold) - The Thinking Animal Problem and Personal Pronoun Revisionism</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23095.htm">Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity (Stanford, 2015)</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22066.htm">Olson (Eric) - Review of P. Snowdon, Persons, Animals, Ourselves</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20785.htm">Olson (Eric) - Self: Personal Identity</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19916.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Nature of People</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2710.htm">Olson (Eric) - What are We?</A>", Olson, especially<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12011.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Animals</A>", Olson<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12012.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Constitution</A>", Olson<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12013.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Brains</A>", Olson<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12013.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Brains</A>", Olson<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12015.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Bundles</A>", Olson<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12016.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Souls</A>", Olson<BR>&rarr; "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12018.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? What Now?</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20709.htm">Parfit (Derek) - We Are Not Human Beings</A>", Parfit</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20427.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Persons, Animals, and Identity</A>", Shoemaker_S</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22075.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Thinking Animals Without Animalism</A>", Shoemaker_S</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperSummary_21031.htm">Steward (Helen) - Free Will</A>", Snowdon</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20706.htm">Sutton (Catherine S.) - The Supervenience Solution to the Too-Many-Thinkers Problem</A>", Sutton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14450.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Problems for Animalism</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_872_19">Zimmerman</A></U><SUB>19</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_872_19"></A></li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="28"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_872_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_872_10"></A><B>Footnote 10</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>For many years, Olson has trotted this argument out at every opportunity. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_872_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Usually invoking vagueness / fuzzy boundary considerations. </li><li>Which of the many cats (give or take a few atoms) is the  real cat ? There s no principled reason / I can t know which. </li><li>So there are no cats, or if there are, I can t know which of the many cat-a-likes is the real cat. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_872_12"></A><B>Footnote 12</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I accept Moore s  two hands argument  nothing is plainer than that I have two hands, so any metaphysical or epistemological theory that says I haven t, or can t know that I have, must have something wrong with it. </li><li>I do know that there are arguments against the existence of hands and other  arbitrary undetached parts , so maybe it s safer to stick to cats. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_872_15"></A><B>Footnote 15</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_872_16"></A><B>Footnote 16</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_872_17"></A><B>Footnote 17</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_872_18"></A><B>Footnote 18</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Look at "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15886.htm">Ray (Greg) - Williamson's Master Argument on Vagueness</A>". Is it relevant? </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_872_19"></A><B>Footnote 19</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>And no-doubt other papers in "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2929.htm">Olson (Eric), Etc. - Abstracta Special Issue on 'The Human Animal'</A>".</li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 08/05/2018 19:40:48<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 17: (Fission)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_33_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_33_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>Fission is important in the philosophy of identity  especially of personal identity  in that it provides many <a name="28"></a>thought-experiments (TEs), and some real-life examples, that test out the various theories. </li><li>The paradigm case of Fission is of two <a name="28"></a>half-brain <a name="28"></a>transplants. It is difficult to consider these cases without slipping into the  <a name="28"></a>psychological view . Each hemisphere seems to preserve <a name="28"></a>what matters to the fissioned individual, and a <a name="28"></a>perdurantist account can maintain <a name="28"></a>identity after fission. </li><li>An alternative account is to claim that the two half-brains always were separate persons (and Puccetti has maintained that they are separate persons, in all of us, even prior to the <a name="28"></a>commissurotomy in this TE), in a way slightly different from the usual <a name="28"></a>Lewis view of non-identical <a name="28"></a>spatially-coincident <a name="28"></a>individuals (because the hemispheres aren t spatially coincident, though the shared <a name="28"></a>body is). </li><li>We need to consider how the original <a name="28"></a>person was <a name="28"></a>unified. We can press the realism of the thought-experiment by asking how important are the spinal cord and PNS generally to the psychological integrity of the human <a name="28"></a>organism? The case of <a name="28"></a>dicephalus twins may be relevant  where the functions of walking and even typing seem to be carried out perfectly adequately despite the coordinated limbs being controlled by different brains. </li><li>We also need to consider whether the two half-brains continue to constitute a single <a name="28"></a>scattered person, just parked in separate bodies. A single embodiment is important because it ensures synchronisation of experience, and external communication between the hemispheres (in the absence of the usual internal communication across the corpus callosum). Presumably, this could be achieved in other ways. </li><li>We can imagine a <a name="28"></a>BIV linked by radio transmitters/receivers to a remote body  the brain is part of the body  so a single physical thing can be spatially discontinuous. Why, if A fissions into B and C, can t we consider B & C to be parts of the same person? They could fight / argue & but so can someone in two minds about things. What if one killed the other? They would have different perceptual experiences, but so (presumably) does a chameleon, with its eyes pointing in different directions (and sheep and other herbivores, and fish, with eyes on the sides of their heads). </li><li>I need to consider in detail what is supposed to be going on in fission  ie. press the thought experiment: there needs to be segregation / redundancy prior to separation  this can happen over time (or we would have plain <a name="28"></a>duplication). At some point the person will split, with incommunicable <a name="28"></a>consciousnesses (cf. <a name="28"></a>Locke s day-person and night-person).</li><li>This Note overlaps with some others:-<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Brain Transplants<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Commissurotomy<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Multiple Personality Disorder<BR>In such cases, the reading is (usually) reserved for these notes and not repeated here. </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_33_26">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>26</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_33_26"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_33_27">include</A></U><SUB>27</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_33_27"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3743.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Fission</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8899.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - Fission, Fusion and Intrinsic Facts</A>", Hawley</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_190.htm">Nagel (Thomas) - Brain Bisection and the Unity of Consciousness</A>", Nagel</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3969.htm">Noonan (Harold) - The Reduplication Problem</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3623.htm">Unger (Peter) - Fission and the Focus of One's Life</A>", Unger</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3670.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Being in Two Minds</A>", Wilkes</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5782.htm">Brueckner (Anthony) - Branching in the psychological approach to personal identity</A>", Brueckner</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6097.htm">Burke (Michael) - Spatial Analogues of 'Annihilation and Re-creation'</A>", Burke</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21651.htm">Cerullo (Michael A.) - Uploading and Branching Identity</A>", Cerullo</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6300.htm">Gallois (Andre) - Counting Amoebas</A>", Gallois</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9145.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Johnston on Fission</A>", Garrett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12885.htm">Hershenov (David) & Koch-Hershenov (Rose J.) - Fission and Confusion</A>", Hershenov</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4320.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Fission and the Facts</A>", Johnston</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_556.htm">Martin (Raymond) - Fission Rejuvenated</A>", Martin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6616.htm">Martin (Raymond), Barresi (John) & Giovannelli (Alessandro) - Fission Examples in 18th and Early 19th century Personal Identity Debate</A>", Martin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6031.htm">Matthews (Gareth B.) - Surviving As</A>", Matthews</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4421.htm">Mills (Eugene) - Dividing Without Reducing: Bodily Fission and Personal Identity</A>", Mills</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22024.htm">Moyer (Mark) - A Survival Guide to Fission</A>", Moyer</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5344.htm">Munzer (Stephen R.) - Transplantation, Chemical Inheritance, and the Identity of Organs</A>", Munzer</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3969.htm">Noonan (Harold) - The Reduplication Problem</A>", Noonan</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6006.htm">Oderberg (David) - Fission, Intermittence and the Primitiveness of Identity</A>", Oderberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19245.htm">Ord (Toby) - Implications of fission, fusion and teletransportation to a view of personal identity through psychological continuity</A>", Ord</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_328.htm">Perry (John) - Can the Self Divide?</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4941.htm">Rovane (Carol) - Branching Self-Consciousness</A>", Rovane</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9803.htm">Seibt (Johanna) - Fission, Sameness, and Survival: Parfit s Branch Line Argument Revisited</A>", Seibt</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5057.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Brown-Brownson Revisited</A>", Shoemaker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12810.htm">Valberg (J.J.) - My Future: The Puzzle of Division</A>", Valberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_02/PaperSummary_2644.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - How Many Selves Make Me?</A>", Wilkes</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20899.htm">Wright (John) - Personal Identity, Fission and Time Travel</A>", Wright</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="28"></a>place-holder. Currently, just see the categorised reading-list. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_33_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_33_26"></A><B>Footnote 26</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_33_27"></A><B>Footnote 27</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 15/02/2018 20:54:14<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 18: (Fusion)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_34_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_34_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>Like <a name="28"></a>Fission, though to a lesser degree, Fusion is important in the philosophy of identity  especially of personal identity  in that it provides many <a name="28"></a>thought-experiments (TEs), and some real-life examples, that test out the various theories. </li><li>We need to consider the merger of the two <a name="28"></a>psychologies: Parfit thinks we might like to inherit some of the better characteristics of our partner, as in a marriage  but the creation of a single <a name="28"></a>consciousness from two seems difficult to conceive of (much more so than the creation of two consciousnesses from one, as in fission). Do we end up with a single <a name="28"></a>first-person perspective, or with two? This needs to be related to <a name="28"></a>multiple personality disorder. Also, consider <a name="28"></a>Parfit s seasonal people that alternately fission and fuse. How conceivable are these TEs? </li><li>We also need to consider physical as well as psychological fusions, as in the case of the <a name="28"></a>dicephalus and <a name="28"></a>brain transplants.</li><li>There may be some overlap between this note and those on <a name="28"></a>Mereology, and <a name="28"></a>Constitution, which deal with the fusion of parts into a whole. </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_34_13">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_34_13"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_34_14">include</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_34_14"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_08/Abstract_8899.htm">Hawley (Katherine) - Fission, Fusion and Intrinsic Facts</A>", Hawley</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5679.htm">Hudson (Hud) - On Constitution and All-Fusions</A>", Hudson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3472.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Identity Over Time and Change Of Composition</A>", Lowe</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18378.htm">McGrath (Matthew) - Four-Dimensionalism and the Puzzles of Coincidence</A>", McGrath</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15855.htm">McInerney (Peter K.) - Conceptions of Persons and Persons through Time</A>", McInerney</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23003.htm">Miller (Kristie) - Issues of Composition</A>", Miller</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19245.htm">Ord (Toby) - Implications of fission, fusion and teletransportation to a view of personal identity through psychological continuity</A>", Ord</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22052.htm">Tanksley (Charley) - The Mereological Constancy Of Masses</A>", Tanksley</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20899.htm">Wright (John) - Personal Identity, Fission and Time Travel</A>", Wright</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3658.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Composition As Identity</A>", Van Inwagen</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="28"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_34_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_34_13"></A><B>Footnote 13</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_34_14"></A><B>Footnote 14</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 15/02/2018 22:00:29<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 19: (Replication)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_36_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_36_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>Replication arises where an obvious copying process takes place. I would claim that <a name="28"></a>Teletransportation falls under this head. I'm currently not clear whether there's a distinction between replication and <a name="28"></a>duplication, other than that duplication would seem to be restricted to doubling, whereas replication is more open-ended. </li><li>Does amoebic division count as replication? When an amoeba divides, this is not a case of <a name="28"></a>fission but of reproduction. So, there are <U>three</U> amoebae involved  the original one and the two daughters. This is not the same situation as in fission.</li><li>The above said, does this case depend:<ol type="1"><li>on <a name="28"></a>how the case is described and</li><li>on how  empirically  the replication occurs?</li></ol></li><li>If the amoebic division occurs by budding of a daughter, so that we can continually "track" the parent, then we have straightforward reproduction. If the division is symmetrical, the case could be correctly described as replication, though maybe on a <a name="28"></a>perdurantist view we originally had two <a name="28"></a>coincident amoebae that both persist. </li><li>We need to watch out for <a name="28"></a>closest continuer descriptions of the case.</li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_36_9">Links</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_36_9"></A> to this Note, <a href="Notes_36_Links.htm">Click here</a>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_36_10">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_36_10"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_36_11">include</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_36_11"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>I don t really have a categorised reading-list for this Note; while there is one, it is empty. Any reading will be covered under a sister Note of this one: <a name="28"></a>Reduplication Objections. </li><li>This is mostly a <a name="28"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_36_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_36_9"></A><B>Footnote 9</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_36_10"></A><B>Footnote 10</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_36_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 02/08/2018 15:48:58<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 20: (Commissurotomy)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_116_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_116_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>A commissurotomy involves cutting the corpus callosum, the bundle of nerve fibres connecting the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain. The procedure is used to treat epilepsy, but is invoked by philosophers as a <a name="28"></a>thought experiment (TE) to provide an alleged real-life example of <a name="28"></a>fission. The real-life situation usually has to be improved to overcome the laterality of the brain, and the two hemispheres are assumed to be idempotent, with nothing of philosophical significance alleged to ride on this idealisation. </li><li>As with all TEs, what we can learn from this one depends on our level of description of what is supposed to be going on. The idea is that each hemisphere fully supports the mental life of the subject(s), and consequently that there is, or can come to be, multiple subjects  and hence multiple persons  within the same human animal. Commissurotomy is used as an objection to <a name="28"></a>animalism. Some philosophers argue that (for modal reasons) there are always two persons within the same human being. </li><li>Clearly, this is not obviously the case in the normal asymmetric brain (see, no doubt, "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_516.htm">Kinsbourne (Marcel) - Asymmetrical Function of the Brain</A>"). So, in these thought experiments  and prior to this idealised idempotency  there has to be a period of equalisation and duplication of function. This sounds like it would lead to causal over-determination, but maybe the way it could be described is as with fault-tolerant computer systems, so that one hemisphere always takes the lead (or maybe they alternate)  in fact, this is said to be the case <a name="28"></a>[where?] with marine mammals, to enable them to sleep without drowning. The non-dominant hemisphere is just kept up to date  either continuously or periodically  with whatever data and current state is represented in the dominant hemisphere. In such a situation, there are already  prior to the commissurotomy  two exactly similar (other than that they are mirror images of one another) but non-identical half-brains. </li><li>Of course, the last sentence above begs some questions. It is only the cerebral hemispheres that are separated and duplicated  but they are still physically connected via the brain-stem  even if the logical connections are greatly reduced. It is said <a name="28"></a>(where?) that severed hemispheres can still communicate with one another via cues passed externally to the brain. Indeed, the case of the <a name="28"></a>dicephalus suggests that this co-ordination is possible with two complete brains, where the hands can be coordinated to drive a car and even type, despite being controlled by different brains. </li><li>A recent paper - "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22676.htm">Pinto (Yair) - When you split the brain, do you split the person?</A>" - has suggested that the research for which Sperry received a Nobel Prize has not been replicated  in the case of two patients  and that this raises questions about the nature of consciousness. I have my doubts. Might the corpus collosi not have been entirely severed in these cases, or might one of the above situations apply? </li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_116_8">Links</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_116_8"></A> to this Note, <a href="Notes_116_Links.htm">Click here</a>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_116_9">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_116_9"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_116_10">include</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_116_10"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4870.htm">Benson (Ophelia) - This Isn't My Body</A>", Benson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20173.htm">Liao (S. Matthew) - The Organism View Defended</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_116_11">Liao</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_116_11"></A></li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1320.htm">Marks (Charles) - Commissurotomy, Consciousness and Unity of Mind</A>", Marks</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3509.htm">Olson (Eric) - Why We Need Not Accept the Psychological Approach</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15141.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Immortality</A>", Shoemaker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5892.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Prcis of Material Beings</A>", van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3670.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Being in Two Minds</A>", Wilkes </li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3806.htm">Baillie (James) - Commissurotomy and the Unity of Mind</A>", Baillie </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7763.htm">Davis (Lawrence H.) - Cerebral Hemispheres</A>", Davis</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20325.htm">Dewitt (Larry W.) - Consciousness, Mind, and Self: The Implications of the Split-Brain Studies</A>", Dewitt</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5644.htm">Eccles (John) - Mental Dualism and Commissurotomy</A>", Eccles</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20937.htm">Gillett (Grant) - Brain Bisection and Personal Identity</A>", Gillett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3773.htm">Glover (Jonathan) - Split Brains</A>", Glover </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6700.htm">Greenwood (John) - Split-Brains and Singular Personhood</A>", Greenwood</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21121.htm">Hershenov (David) & Taylor (Adam P.) - Split Brains: No Headache for the Soul Theorist</A>", Hershenov & Taylor</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4318.htm">Hirsch (Eli) - Divided Minds</A>", Hirsch</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14386.htm">Iredale (Mathew) - Your Two Brains</A>", Iredale</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_01/PaperSummary_1023.htm">MacKay (Donald) - Divided Brains - Divided Minds</A>", MacKay</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6930.htm">Tye (Michael) - Split Brains</A>", Tye</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3548.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Two Problems About Personal Identity: Memory and Commissurotomy</A>", van Inwagen</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6085.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Consciousness and Commissurotomy</A>", Wilkes </li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="28"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_116_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_116_8"></A><B>Footnote 8</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_116_9"></A><B>Footnote 9</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_116_10"></A><B>Footnote 10</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_116_11"></A><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Section 3 deals with Commissurotomy. </li><li>The whole paper is interesting in <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_112.htm">defending animalism against objections</a>. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 24/06/2018 16:32:10<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 21: (Multiple Personality Disorder)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_86_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_86_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>MPD is otherwise known as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). </li><li>This condition is normally viewed as <a name="28"></a>psychopathological, to be treated by therapy. It occurs where a <a name="28"></a>human being is, or appears to be,  home to more than one <a name="28"></a>person, or at least more than one <a name="28"></a>personality. </li><li>These persons/personalities may be radically dissimilar, and are (as the alternative designation implies) dissociated from one another. They can be like Locke s night and day man  incommunicable consciousnesses , unaware of one another s existence  hence being in Lockean terms different persons; or, they can be aware of one another, but as of distinct persons. </li><li>No doubt one could complain that the clinically-recorded cases are exaggerated, fabrications or otherwise unreliable. But there seems nothing wrong with them as <a name="28"></a>TEs, and ones least open to cavil given their approximation to reality. </li><li>Effectively, we have a <a name="28"></a>brain running more than one <a name="28"></a>mind-program (on the  mind-as-software approach); or a brain segregated into more than virtual machine (on the  mind as hardware ) approach to the mind-brain relationship. </li><li>MPDs pose no problems to those espousing the <a name="28"></a>Psychological View (PV)  other than ethical issues concerning  therapeutic suppression or unification of the alleged multiple persons (see "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_15/Abstract_15136.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Moral Issues at the End of Life</A>"), but what is the response of or the <a name="28"></a>Constitution View (CV)? Can we have more than one person  with more than one <a name="28"></a>First Person Perspective (FPP)  constituted by the same human body? <a name="28"></a>Animalism ignores psychological factors altogether as far as identity is concerned, so won t be troubled. </li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_86_13">Links</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_86_13"></A> to this Note, <a href="Notes_86_Links.htm">Click here</a>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_86_14">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_86_14"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_86_15">include</A></U><SUB>15</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_86_15"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="28"></a>place-holder. Currently, just see the categorised reading-list. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_86_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_86_13"></A><B>Footnote 13</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_86_14"></A><B>Footnote 14</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_86_15"></A><B>Footnote 15</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 02/08/2018 15:48:58<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 22: (Brain State Transfer)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_48_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_48_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>The idea that we can, even in principle, copy the information from a <a name="28"></a>brain to a backup device and then restore it to another (or the same) brain - as in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_423.htm">Williams (Bernard) - The Self and the Future</A>" - without changing the <U>identity</U> of that brain seems fanciful to me. </li><li>This is partly because I am antipathetic to <a name="28"></a>functionalism. The information stored in brains appears to be in highly distributed representations along connectionist lines rather than according to classical AI. The very <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_48_4">physical structure</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_48_4"></A> of the brain changes along with what it represents. There is no simple software / hardware distinction in a realistic <a name="28"></a>psychology of <a name="28"></a>human beings. </li><li>Consequently, this is a case of an under-specified <a name="28"></a>TE that <A HREF = "../../../Authors/W/Author_Wilkes (Kathleen).htm">Kathleen Wilkes</A> so objects to. When we try to flesh out the details, we find that the TE doesn t really work. Any backup will need to be molecule by molecule to retain the informational richness of the original, and consequently any restore will not really simply modify the existing brain, but will destroy it and replace it with a <a name="28"></a>replica of the brain whose contents are supposedly being transferred. It will not simply feed information into a pre-existing brain. </li><li>Hence, I now think that Williams s intuitions about the post-transfer A-body-person remaining a  mixed up A-person are incorrect. Nor does A-body-person end up as B, but as a fusion of a confused replica of B s brain and A s <a name="28"></a>body. The situation is best described as a <a name="28"></a>transplant of (maybe only part of) a replica of B s brain into A-body-person s head.</li><li>This topic is related to other Notes, including:-<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Transhumanism, and<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Uploading.</li><li>Note that  uploading differs from  and builds on  BSTs because it requires the person s psychology and phenomenal consciousness to be realised (I would say merely simulated) on a digital computer, making a two-phase project, whereas BSTs  superficially at least  just require the copying phase. </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_48_13">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_48_13"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_48_14">include</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_48_14"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21149.htm">Dainton (Barry) - Self: Philosophy In Transit: Prologue</A>", Dainton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20895.htm">Ehring (Douglas) - Personal Identity and Time Travel</A>", Ehring</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>", Johnston</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_423.htm">Williams (Bernard) - The Self and the Future</A>", Williams</li></ol></li><li>The categorised reading-list doesn t provide much, though there must be many references in the literature. Many will mention BSTs only in passing. So, for now, the reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23095.htm">Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity (Stanford, 2015)</A>", Olson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5401.htm">Perry (John) - Williams on The Self and the Future</A>", Perry</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1791.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Personal Identity: a Materialist Account</A>", Shoemaker</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="28"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_48_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_48_4"></A><B>Footnote 4</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Of course, even in a digital computer there are physical changes to the various gates and storage media. </li><li>But there is no growing or disassembling of connections. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_48_13"></A><B>Footnote 13</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_48_14"></A><B>Footnote 14</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 14/03/2018 14:38:24<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 23: (Brain)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_55_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_55_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>There is a view that <a name="28"></a>we are really, most fundamentally, our brains. It seems to promise some good things from both the  <a name="28"></a>psychological criterion and  <a name="28"></a>bodily criterion camps, since the brain is indeed part of the <a name="28"></a>body, and, in the absence of a <a name="28"></a>soul, the source of all our psychological functions. However, we seem to be much more than our brains. After all, who would want to be a <a name="28"></a>BIV (Brain in a Vat)? According to Johnston (see "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>"), BIVs are  maximally mutilated human beings; which seems to be along the right lines. Note the important distinction between your surviving in a maximally mutilated state (as a brain) and you  really being your brain.</li><li>This is an issue <a name="28"></a>Animalism has to contend with - whether a BIV is an animal. <A HREF = "../../../Authors/S/Author_Snowdon (Paul).htm">Paul Snowdon</A> <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_55_9">claims</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_55_9"></A> that no-one seems to think this, a view that Olson shares but on which he may be open to objection. He says that an animal with a prosthetic leg is a smaller animal with something non-animal attached. If this is admitted, don t we end up with a <a name="28"></a>sorites argument, that a BIV is a (very much) smaller animal; though not, I think, with any paradox? </li><li>The big question is whether an animal s brain is just another organ (like its liver) or whether it has some other status. That it is somehow special can be presupposed if we start conceptually with the brain as the core from which other parts are shaved off. Whether this is the right approach depends, I think, on what the brain does for the animal, and where the animal is on the phylogenetic tree. The brain is a much more important organ in some animals than others; in some lower animals it has no psychological functions and (maybe) its regulatory functions <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_55_11">aren t essential</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_55_11"></A>. </li><li>Why is the Woody Allen expostulation that his brain (in Sleeper)  (is) my second favourite organ amusing? Firstly, of course, because of the sexual innuendo and the ultimately strange prioritisation (since you can t enjoy sexual excitement without a brain), but also, I think, because your brain isn t an organ that you  have . Without your brain, there s no  you at all, or at least this is a strong intuition. </li><li>You can obviously (given even today s technology), do without a liver, and it seems that on a life-support machine your body can do without its brain  where the brain is looked upon merely as a regulator. But the reference of  <a name="28"></a>you is a bit slippery in these contexts. There is a sense in which you as an organism can do without a brain  on life support  but  you as an essentially psychological being cannot. The animalists claim that you  being identical to an animal  have no essential psychological predicates; yet it is difficult to resist the intuition that there s a reference of  you that does have essential psychological predicates. This is to you as a <a name="28"></a>person  but the big question is whether this person is a separate substance <a name="28"></a>constituted by the human animal, or is just a way of describing the animal when possessed of the appropriate psychological predicates. Saying that you can t do without your brain is just another way of saying that your psychological predicates are those most important to you (the animal); those without which the other predicates cannot be enjoyed. </li><li>The issue fundamentally concerns the integrity of <a name="28"></a>organisms. It is said that a brain isn t an organism; but does an organism have to be self-supporting (the main reason for denying the status of organisms to disembodied brains)? After all, we seem to be allowing that an organism on life support is correctly described as an organism. We ll discuss this further in its place. </li><li>These issues are especially important when we consider various <a name="28"></a>Thought Experiments, in particular <a name="28"></a>Brain Transplants. <a name="28"></a>Transplantation of all sorts seems to involve <a name="28"></a>fusion, with its <a name="28"></a>logical problems for identity (not just for persons).</li><li>Given that brains are important in lots of contexts related to personal identity, it is important to understand how they work  or at least to have some familiarity with some of what is known about how they work. Consequently, the reading lists below have some books on neuroscience. It is difficult to decide how the lists should be divided between this Note and that on the <a name="28"></a>Brain Criterion. As a first stab, the bulk appear under this Note, though some may be moved as I get further into the topic. </li><li>I ve tried to exclude from the lists items covered in other related notes, in particular:-<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>BIVs<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Brain Death<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Brain State Transfers<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Brain Transplants<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Commissurotomy<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Consciousness<BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>Siliconisation</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_55_29">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>29</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_55_29"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_55_30">include</A></U><SUB>30</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_55_30"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1165.htm">Bear (Mark), Connors (Barry) & Paradiso (Michael) - Neuroscience</A>", Bear Etc.</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22097.htm">Bess (Michael) - Why upgrading your brain could make you less human</A>", Bess</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21059.htm">Churchland (Patricia) - The Brains Behind Morality</A>", Churchland</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1340.htm">Churchland (Patricia) - Brain-wise: Studies in Neurophilosophy</A>", Churchland</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_191.htm">Churchland (Patricia) - Neurophilosophy - Towards a Unified Science of the Mind/Brain</A>", Churchland</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21057.htm">Crane (Tim) - The Mental States of Persons and their Brains</A>", Crane</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1186.htm">Damasio (Antonio) - Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain</A>", Damasio</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_802.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Where Am I?</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7955.htm">Edwards (Paul) - The Dependence of Consciousness on the Brain</A>", Edwards</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22515.htm">Epstein (Robert) - The empty brain</A>", Epstein</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6352.htm">Genova (Lisa) - Still Alice</A>", Genova</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22177.htm">Graziano (Michael) - Build-a-brain</A>", Graziano</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>", Johnston</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6284.htm">Kaku (Michio) - The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest To Understand, Enhance and Empower the Mind</A>", Kaku</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21721.htm">Lewin (Roger) - Is Your Brain Really Necessary?</A>", Lewin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_503.htm">MacKay (Donald) - Brains, Machines & Persons</A>", MacKay</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6322.htm">Marsh (Henry) - Do No Harm: Stories of Life, Death and Brain Surgery</A>", Marsh</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22524.htm">Miller (Kenneth D.) - Will You Ever Be Able to Upload Your Brain?</A>", Miller</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1171.htm">Parkin (Alan) - Explorations in Cognitive Neuropsychology</A>", Parkin</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5094.htm">Steinhart (Eric) - Persons Versus Brains: Biological Intelligence in Human Organisms</A>", Steinhart</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1169.htm">Andrewes (David) - Neuropsychology: From Theory to Practice</A>", Andrewes</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_552.htm">Baker (Peter) - An Explanation of How Brains Think</A>", Baker (Peter)</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1163.htm">Bennett (M.R.) & Hacker (P.M.S.) - Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience</A>", Bennett & Hacker</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_172.htm">Blakemore (Colin) & Greenfield (Susan), Eds. - Mindwaves: Thoughts on Intelligence, Identity and Consciousness</A>", Blakemore & Greenfield</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_68.htm">Borst (C.V.) - The Mind-Brain Identity Theory</A>", Borst</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6616.htm">Changizi (Mark A.) - The Brain from 25,000 Feet</A>", Changizi</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6414.htm">Claxton (Guy) - Intelligence in the Flesh: Why Your Mind Needs Your Body Much More Than it Thinks</A>", Claxton</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1184.htm">Damasio (Antonio), Ed. - The 'Scientific American' Book of the Brain: The Best Writing on Consciousness</A>", Damasio</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1357.htm">DeMyer (William) - Neuroanatomy</A>", DeMyer</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_199.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Brainchildren - Essays on Designing Minds</A>", Dennett</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_204.htm">Eccles (John) - Evolution of the Brain, Creation of the Self</A>", Eccles</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1402.htm">Feinberg (Todd) - Altered Egos: How the Brain Creates the Self</A>", Feinberg</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_01/PaperSummary_1562.htm">Greenfield (Susan) - Soul, Brain and Mind</A>", Greenfield</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_543.htm">Jubak (Jim) - In the Image of the Brain - Breaking the Barrier Between the Human Mind and Intelligent Machines</A>", Jubak</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_516.htm">Kinsbourne (Marcel) - Asymmetrical Function of the Brain</A>", Kinsbourne</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6433.htm">Obler (Loraine K.) & Gjerlow (Kris) - Language and the Brain</A>", Obler</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_139.htm">Popper (Karl) & Eccles (John) - The Self and Its Brain</A>", Popper & Eccles</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_653.htm">Restak (Richard) - The Modular Brain</A>", Restak</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_19/Abstract_19207.htm">Smart (J.C.C.) - The Mind/Brain Identity Theory</A>", Smart</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1418.htm">Wilkerson (T.E.) - Minds, Brains and People</A>", Wilkerson</li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_505.htm">Wills (Christopher) - The Runaway Brain - The Evolution of Human Uniqueness</A>", Wills</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="28"></a>place-holder. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_55_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_55_9"></A><B>Footnote 9</B>: <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_737.htm">Where</a>?<a name="On-Page_Link_55_11"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 11</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I need to <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_737.htm">check</a> this. </li><li>The idea is that in some lower animals, regulation is distributed throughout the body, with the brain playing a less central role. </li><li>This is true of the octopus  a highly intelligent animal  with many neurones distributed throughout its tentacles. </li><li>The same is also true (though to a lesser extent) of human animals  the PNS undertakes various co-ordinating functions, which is why brain-transplant TEs are somewhat simplistic.</li><li>However, maybe I need to distinguish between different neural functions  regulation, coordination, sensation, etc. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_55_29"></A><B>Footnote 29</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_55_30"></A><B>Footnote 30</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 24/04/2018 00:12:58<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 24: (Teletransportation)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> A Case Study -  Beam me up Scottie : There are two obvious supposed mechanisms for teletransportation:<ol type="1"><li>Transferring both matter and information; or simply</li><li>Transferring information, utilising local matter. </li></ol>I gather that in the show itself, it's plasma that's transmitted, but as this is unlikely to get to its destination without causing havoc, the information-only transfer is more reasonable. However, even in the plasma-transfer case, I'm unconvinced that I'd <a name="28"></a>survive, for two reasons: <ol type="1"><li>Some things (eg. bicycles) <U>can</U> survive disassembly and re-assembly, but <U>only</U> if they are disassembled into recognisable parts. If a bicycle is disassembled into iron filings and latex goo, and then re-manufactured, we might be reluctant to say it's the same bicycle. </li><li>As a matter of empirical fact, fundamental particles are not distinguishable, so the labelling cannot be undertaken even in principle. If it doesn't matter which particle fits where, provided they are of the right sort, the case seems to collapse into the information-transfer variant.</li></ol> We now turn to the information-transfer case. My main worries initially here have to do with the possibility of <a name="28"></a>duplicates. We all know that a counterfeit, however well done, isn't the same as the original. The logic of <a name="28"></a>identity is constraining. A thing is identical to itself and to nothing else, so if a thing is identical to two "other" things, these "two" must be identical to one another. Given that my two beamed-up versions <U>aren't</U> identical to one another, at least one of them can't be identical to me. And, since they are exactly <a name="28"></a>similar, why choose one rather than the other? So, neither is me. Both are exactly similar to me, but identity is to be distinguished from exact similarity. This situation is similar to the case where the "original" human being isn't destroyed. This sort of thought <a name="28"></a>experiment is referred to as the branch-line case. Canonically, it's where I've only a few days left to live (because the scanner has done me a mischief). Would I be happy in the knowledge that my duplicate would go on and on, and take up with my partner and career where I left off? Is this as good as if I survived? Not likely, unless we re <a name="28"></a>Parfitian saints! Note, however, that the case is tendentiously described (ie. as teletransportation) to lead to this seemingly obvious conclusion. The "main line" candidate would be perfectly happy that his rival back home was about to perish. <BR><BR>Philosophers split into two main camps in response to these situations (though - jumping ahead a little - even if <a name="28"></a>perdurantism <U>is</U> true, we <U>still</U> might not have the teletransportation of a <a name="28"></a>persisting <a name="28"></a>individual, because of the wrong sort of <a name="28"></a>causal link leading to a lack of forward <a name="28"></a>continuity of <a name="28"></a>consciousness, or even of physical continuity). So there are multiple bifurcations, but we keep things simple here and just follow those who think that I either survive or have what <a name="28"></a>matters in survival:-<ol type="1"><li>4-dimensionalists (Perdurantists): A thing is really a 4-dimensional worm through space-time, which consists in a set of instantaneous 3-D stages. In this situation, where multiple teletransportations occur, all copies are me. They are different 4-D worms, but they share all their pre-beaming-up stages. There were <U>always</U> at least 2 people present. </li><li>3-dimensionalists (Endurantists) claim that while I'm not identical to the beamed-up person, yet I have what matters in survival.</li></ol>Note that there's a <a name="28"></a>modal argument to the effect that even in the usual case where only <U>one</U> copy is beamed up, and the original is destroyed, because there <U>might</U> have been multiple copies, this means that identity isn't preserved <U>even</U> in the case where there's only one teletransportation-result created. This seems to lead to paradox. Imagine the situation - I'm beamed up and think I've survived, and am then told that the machine has malfunctioned and produced a duplicate, and hence, contrary to my experience, I haven't survived after all! Unfortunately, some philosophers go along with a "closest <a name="28"></a>continuer" theory of identity across nasty cases of <a name="28"></a>fission or <a name="28"></a>fusion. I'm identical to (or even  survive as ) the continuer that <U>most</U> closely continues me, either <a name="28"></a>psychologically or <a name="28"></a>physically, according to taste. How can <U>my</U> survival depend on what happens to someone <U>else</U>, the thought goes? While this does seem odd, in fact you can t trust the feelings of the teletransportees  for even if multiple copies are made, they all subjectively <U>feel</U> like the original. <BR><BR>There are two questions outstanding. <ol type="1"><li>Do I survive the transfer? And, if I don t, </li><li>Does it matter that I'm not identical to the post-beamed person? </li></ol>I m here ignoring the (as it seems to <a name="28"></a>me) illogical  survival without identity option. <BR><BR>We have seen that it is possible that it appears to me that I survive, yet I do not. On the endurantist view, the logic of identity means that I cannot trust my experience. So, it seems possible that the person  waking up is not me. I never wake up  in the sense that I lose consciousness, but never experience a re-awakening - but someone else with my past in his memories is created in my stead. <BR><BR>So, is survival what matters? Well, on the perdurantist view, it s not even sufficient for me to have what matters. Imagine the case where the machine goes haywire and 1,000 exactly similar teletransportees are created. All these share my pre-teletransportation stages, so are all me (except that  I was always 1,000 co-located individuals  and maybe more  who knows how often the machine may go wrong in the future!). In this case 1,000 individuals would be squabbling over the same friends, relations, job etc, and that might be rather a nuisance. However, this isn't fundamental to whether I do or don't survive. If I'm a violin virtuoso or a body-builder, I might not find it much fun surviving as a brain in a vat, but that would just be tough. The standard philosophical test is the "future great pain test". I believe that the future continuant will be me, whether I like it or not, if I'm as terrified of that continuant being tortured as I would be if I were to be tortured in the normal course of events. Our <a name="28"></a>BIVs would be even more upset at the prospect of torture-simulation being fed into their brains than at the loss of their beautiful bodies. Our fears have to be moderated by logic, however. But this is no worse than ignoring a revivalist rant on Hellfire. If I m not identical to a particular teletransportatee, I won t survive, and if I don t survive I won t feel anything. I may have a moral obligation not to land others in a pickle, but it won t be the selfish problem of avoiding landing myself in one. <BR><BR>I can imagine fissioning, by the bungled-beaming-up process, into 1,000 continuants, none of which (on a 3-D view) is identical to me, but all of whom seem to themselves to continue my first-person perspective. I can imagine (just about) going into the machine, and coming out again 1,000 times (when the life-histories of the 1,000 then start to diverge). While the psychologies of the 1,000 are initially identical, they are not connected to one another, though they are each connected continuously to the pre-beamed-up person. So, if even one of them were to be threatened with torture, I'd be terrified if I thought that that one (even amongst all the others) would be me, in the sense that my experience continues into that body. <BR><BR>But, do I survive? I don't think I do, for reasons given above. It s not that I reject perdurantism, it s just that even accepting perdurantism there s too radical a discontinuity. It's clear that a duplicate, looking backwards, wouldn't be able to tell apart the situation from the normal one of (say) just having woken up after a dreamless sleep. However, I imagine it's possible (even in a supposedly successful teletransportation) for there to be nothing it's like for me after the beaming - it's as though I never woke up, though someone else woke up thinking he was me. This would be a tragedy but, we'd never know about it, because (on this hypothesis) I wouldn't be around to tell the tale, and my duplicate would claim everything was fine (he remembered going to bed and waking up, as it were). <BR><BR>This worries me slightly about our every-night bouts of unconsciousness. How do I know that  the me that wakes up is  the same me that went to sleep, and would it matter if it wasn't? Was my mother right in saying  it ll be all right in the morning , in the sense that I d have no further experience of the current problem, or indeed of anything at all? Is this worry parallel to beam-me-up case? Or is sleep a pain-free death?<BR><BR>I suspect the answer to these questions is that for a physical thing to persist, there needs to be appropriate physical continuity, and this continuity guarantees its persistence (though this intuition is a bit of a feeble response). On the assumption that my <a name="28"></a>brain supports my conscious experience, this is enough to reassure me that, as it's the same continuing brain in my skull overnight, it's the same me that's conscious in the morning. I don't have the same reassurance in the case of beaming-up. So, I wouldn't go in for it, even if it came to be seen as a cheap form of transportation.<BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>Footnote  December 2009</U></B><BR><BR>There s a 10-minute animated cartoon - John Weldon's "To Be"  that discusses the question of teletransportation. It s presently on U-Tube at <A HREF = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdxucpPq6Lc" TARGET = "_top">Link</A> (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdxucpPq6Lc). In it, a mad scientist invents a teletransportation device as a means of free travel. The necessity of destroying the original is discussed, initially to avoid overpopulation, and then to prevent disputes at to who is who. The branch-line case, where the original is destroyed five minutes after the replication, also features. There, it is clear that the original is a different individual to the teletransportee, and clings to life. Destroying the original is (in retrospect) murder  but what s the difference between this situation and the one where the original is immediately destroyed? There s obviously the anticipatory angle  in the  normal case, the original thinks of the situation as one of travel, and no-one thinks that identity is not preserved in the process, whereas in the branch-line case the confusion is exposed, and the original knows that the teletransportee is a clone. So, maybe the branch-line case is <U>clearly</U> a case of murder, whereas the  normal case is a case of accidental homicide where the perpetrator is unaware that he s killed someone? <BR><BR>The twist in the tail is that the heroine, overcome with guilt after the branch-line case (which she d originally just thought of as a logical demonstration)  and now understanding the metaphysics of teletransportation  thinks she can now (a) atone for her crime, (b) escape the guilt and (c) escape her creditors by being herself teletransported. For (a) she dies and is cloned and (b) / (c) the teletransportee is a different individual to the orignal, so why should this individual have any moral connection to the other? There seems to be something fishy about this, but maybe it s perfectly sound reasoning. <BR><BR>In the animation, the original and the teletransportee get muddled up (after all, both look alike and think alike), so for practical purposes we are in a situation similar to Locke s  amnesiac drunkard case  society has to find the drunkard guilty for his forgotten crimes (in that case because of the possibility of dissimulation); so, maybe the possibilty of dissimulation or devious intent (as in the animated case) would for practical purposes mean that the teletransportee would inherit the moral and legal baggage of the original  and surely they would, or the prctical consequences of people routinely escaping their debts would be grave. <BR><BR>Yet, metaphysically, it s no different from escaping your debts by committing suicide, because the teletransportee is not the same individual. And, I think the Branch-line case shows that it s not the same person either, unless we allow the non-substance term  Person to have multiple instances  as immediately post teletransportation, both the original and the teletransportee would seem to be the same person (however this is defined non-substantially) even though they would rapidly diverge into two different persons. Just as in the case of suicide, society has in the past tried to show that you  can t really escape  because of the prospect of Hell, so in the teletransportation case the same myth would be propagated. The teletransportee would be deemed to inherit the moral baggage of the original and, if not up to speed on the metaphysics, would think rightly so. But the original would have escaped for all that!</P><B>Note last updated:</B> 18/12/2010 19:58:05<BR><BR><HR> <P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Footnote 25: (Siliconisation)</B></U></P> <P ALIGN="Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"> <u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_47_1">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_47_1"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li> Siliconisation is a name  there may be others  for <a name="28"></a>thought experiments such as, Unger s  zippering , the gradual replacement of neural tissue by silicon. </li><li>This is a subtle argument. We don t  of course  know whether this TE is metaphysically possible. We don t know whether silicon can sustain <a name="28"></a>consciousness, though <a name="28"></a>functionalists assume that it can. Gradually, it is said, we no longer have a human <a name="28"></a>animal, but one that will  behaviourally at least  will be indistinguishable from one. </li><li>I think the situation is best viewed as an <U>increasingly mutilated</U> human animal with an ever-growing prosthesis. I doubt that the silicon would maintain phenomenal consciousness, but just be a  <a name="28"></a>zombie simulacrum. </li><li>Any replacement that <U>would</U> maintain phenomenal consciousness would be indistinguishable from natural part-replacement. But I think this is a contingent, empirical matter, a long way off from an answer.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_47_7">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_47_7"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_47_8">include</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_47_8"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li></li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="28"></a>place-holder. Currently, just see the categorised reading-list. </li></ul><BR><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_47_1"></A><BR><BR><B>Footnote 1</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_47_7"></A><B>Footnote 7</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_47_8"></A><B>Footnote 8</B>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> </P><B>Note last updated:</B> 11/03/2018 20:19:41<BR><BR><HR> <a name="ColourConventions"></a><BR><P ALIGN="Left"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><B><U>Text Colour Conventions</U></B><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "000000">Black</FONT>: Printable Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018<LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</OL><hr><BR><a href = "../../../index.htm">Return to Home page</a><BR><B>Timestamp: 02/08/2018 17:31:23. 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