<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /> <title>Note: Animadversions - Why Play Bridge? (Theo Todman's Web Page)</title> </head><body> <a name="Top"></a> <h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Notes Pages</h1><hr><h2>Animadversions</h2><h3>Why Play Bridge?</h3><p class = "Centered">(Text as at 10/04/2017 23:38:24)<br><br>(For earlier versions of this Note, <a href="#TableOfPreviousVersions">see the table at the end</a>)</p><hr> <P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">I m writing this paper because I m a philosopher  of sorts  and a bridge-player  of sorts. I ought to be mindful of why I do what I do. <ol type="1"><li><b>Introduction</b><ul type="disc"><li>Bridge can be a very time-consuming activity and preoccupies some highly-intelligent people. Should they spend any of their time on it, and, if so, how much? </li><li>Of course, there are no real facts of the matter here  it s up to individuals how they live their lives and not the job of others to rant at them. Any life that doesn t harm others over-much and is predominantly within the law of the land is  allowable . But some lives are no-doubt better spent than others, for any particular individual in a particular situation with particular acquired or acquirable talents. Doing what you do well to the best of your ability is usually a good thing provided what is done is intrinsically worth doing and doesn t take you away from other things that are more worth-while  whether this be viewed <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_875_1">selfishly or selflessly</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_875_1"></A>. </li><li>I do not deny that there are lots of cognitive and social benefits to playing bridge  particularly for the <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_875_2">elderly</A></U><SUB>2</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_875_2"></A>  these were <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_875_3">publicly rehearsed</A></U><SUB>3</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_875_3"></A> when the case was put (and rejected) for Bridge to be classified as a sport for tax purposes. However, the case is often put one-sidedly, and it is worth insiders like myself taking a step back and asking themselves why they play  and in particular why they play as often as they do and in the clubs and competitions they do. </li><li>Tolstoy s short novella <a name="1"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12622.htm">Tolstoy (Leo) - The Death of Ivan Ilyich</A>" has some negative allusions to card-playing. Tolstoy naturally believes that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_875_4">bridge</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_875_4"></A> is part of the inconsequential social life that he inveighs against in the novella. Indeed, it seems to be a compulsion of the social class to which Ivan belongs  so much so that when he becomes ill, people resent having to <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_875_5">visit him</A></U><SUB>5</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_875_5"></A> because it takes them away from the game. </li><li>In what follows, I want to consider three questions:- <ol type="i"><li>What s good about bridge?</li><li>What are the shortcomings of bridge that might make a (large part of a) life lived in its pursuit not one well-lived?</li><li>What is the motivation behind competitive bridge? </ol> </li></ul></li><li><b>What s good about bridge?</b> <ul type="disc"><li>The benefits of bridge-playing are largely rehearsed in the Bridge World article <a name="W3356W"></a><A HREF = "https://www.bridgeworld.com/indexphp.php?page=/pages/learn/beginners/whyplaybridge.html" TARGET = "_top">Why Play Bridge?</A>.</li><li>To be honest, the main reason is enjoyment, and this is also a reason to resist the compulsion, or at least keep it in check. There is nothing wrong with pleasure  indeed, hedonists or even utilitarians would say it s the only good  but  lower pleasures may need to be kept in check in order to make room for  higher pleasures. The question is where bridge fits in <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_875_6">the scale of pleasures</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_875_6"></A>. </li><li>So, this covers <b>Adventure</b>, <b>Challenge</b>, <b>Entertainment</b>, <b>Fascination</b>, <b>Inexhaustibility</b>, <b>Longevity</b>, <b>Mental Challenge</b>, <b>Multiplicity of Rewards</b>, <b>Pleasure</b>, <b>Universality</b> and <b>Variety</b>. See the article for the explanation of these benefits, which I don t dispute. </li><li>Some of the above may not be pleasures in themselves, but explain why bridge is as pleasurable and compulsive as it is. Non-bridge-players may not be fully aware of this. Any serious player will agree that bridge is a very rich multi-dimensional game, while outsiders may think of it as  snap writ large . Admittedly, social players who don t continue to study the game will not get as much out of it as more serious players. </li><li><b>Longevity</b> is important  not only in the sense that the variability of bridge means that its interest doesn t wane  but in the sense of activities for older people. <ol type="i"><li>Ability (or even competence) in the vast majority of pursuits declines badly with increasing age, but this is not so much the case with bridge (except maybe at the elite level or at the very end of life). There s a marked contrast with chess in this regard. </li><li>The physical demands of bridge are minimal, and immobile players can usually be accommodated. </li><li>The alternative pursuits are increasingly ruled out with increasing age. </ol></li><li>Other advantages suggested: <ol type="i"><li><b>Preparation</b>: for other mental struggles. Maybe, but I m not convinced. </li><li><b>Teamwork</b>: the citation is obscure to those unfamiliar with American sports, but one of the most important, satisfying and frustrating aspects of bridge is that it s a partnership game. It can also be a team game, but teamwork isn t so much to the fore, even at  teams , as in team sports properly so-called. The partnership aspect adds an extra dimension, both insofar as social skills are concerned, but also as far as developing recursive  theory of mind skills. Both in the bidding and the play, whereas positive actions can be quite formulaic,  inaction  why did partner (or the opponents) not do what he or they might have done  requires a more subtle modelling of mind to evaluate. </li><li><b>Skills Development</b>: correlation is noted between bridge-playing ability and success in various technical careers  eg. computer programming. While the correlation is real in some cases, it is round the other way. Good computer programmers are likely to be good bridge-players, if they take the game up. However, bridge combines so many skills that successful players can be quite unexceptional in other areas. </li><li><b>Prestige</b>: there is alleged to be a correlation between professional prestige and success at bridge. This must be US trait, as I ve not noticed it in the UK. It is not a benefit as far as I m concerned. </li><li><b>Mental Exercise</b>: Yes  but bridge is only one of many ways of exercising one s brain. In my experience, this is not a major benefit. Several factors conspire to encourage mental laziness. <ol type="a"><li>Firstly, the element of luck  diligence is not always rewarded. </li><li>Secondly, certain techniques are cognitively very intensive, but not always essential, so if you play bridge for relaxation, you might well skip these aspects without thereby playing incompetently. </ol></li><li><b>Socialisation</b>: This is very important, especially for those without  small talk . Bridge always gives endless subject matter to talk about, and you do get to know a very large number of people. The drawback is that the subject matter is often either narrowly technical, or is gossip about other players. Also, any relationships formed  even between bridge-partners  tend to be quite superficial and related to the game. Not that this is unusual  it s the same in working relationships and those formed around other pursuits, even philosophy!</li><li><b>Therapy</b>: the Bridge World article cites bridge as an absorbing escape from the stresses of modern life. This is certainly true, </ol></li><li>I would add the following further advantages:- <ol type="i"><li><b>Systematisation</b>: bridge bidding systems are analogous to languages, and constructing one  admittedly constrained by what is bridge-legal  is quite a creative business.</li><li><b>Relaxation</b>: This is a needle-point for me. Bridge has to fulfil this function for me, but if played  expertly it cannot do so  for me at any rate. I m told that some people can play chess for relaxation, but I can t see it, in that it involves too much calculation of variations, and calculation is hard work, which is not <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_875_7">relaxation</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_875_7"></A>. </li><li><b>Competition</b>: You could play bridge just for the fun, but  despite most players (including myself) not achieving much in the game  the competitive aspect is crucial for most players. I will discuss this in more detail in a later section. </li><li><b>Egalitarian Luck</b>: Despite bridge being a game of skill, so that the better players win out in the long run  luck plays a part in the short term, so that any partnership  however incompetent  can win a session on their day, even against strong opposition. This isn t the case in chess, where the stronger player wins with depressing regularity. The importance of this point is that there s always hope for all players, especially for the weaker ones, whose enthusiasm continues unabated. </ol> </li></ul></li><li><b>Shortcomings of Bridge</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>The main shortcoming of bridge is that it is a <u>game</u>. What s wrong with games? <ol type="i"><li>My main contention would be that all their supposed ancillary benefits are better achieved by activities that connect with the  real world . This is true even of the  purely pleasurable aspects. It is more pleasurable to discover  natural truths rather than purely logical ones hidden within a human invention. </li><li>So, taking my own other interests as examples, any spin-off benefits in mathematics and computing are better served by focusing on these disciplines themselves. The same goes for bidding systems as pseudo-languages: why not spend more time studying natural languages and linguistics? Bridge asks no deep questions about the world. Wouldn t the time be better spent studying science or philosophy, and keeping the social aspect by joining societies that support those interested in such questions? </li><li>Can t we counter some of this by saying that the visual, auditory and literary arts are also human inventions? True  they are  yet they connect more directly and more widely with the human condition and the natural world. Music may be an exception here. </li><li>As such, time spent on bridge  other than as a relaxation  is rather a guilty pleasure. </ol></li><li>Therefore, most of the shortcomings are down to the opportunity costs of playing bridge. It takes a long time, and while you re playing bridge you can t be doing anything else. Picking up on the first list of advantages  the pleasures  not even the most committed bridge-player would claim that it is the most Adventurous, (mentally) Challenging, Multiply-Rewarding or  Various of activities, though maybe some of the alternative and more extreme pleasures can t be enjoyed as often or as easily, or have even more regrettable consequences. </li><li>The partnership aspect, while rewarding, is also frustrating. This may be the real reason why there are (allegedly)  no bridge prodigies , unlike in other spheres such as music or chess. Music and chess only require one of you, whereas bridge requires two, and finding two such individuals <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_875_8">geographically close enough</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_875_8"></A> to form a regular partnership is exceedingly unlikely, outside the elite schools and universities. </li><li>I found it impossible to play during the bulk of my working life in the City, as my job was demanding, so it was difficult to get away in time, and then there were the commitments of a young family. This seems to be a general problem  there seem to be few bridge players of working age  at least around here in Essex. </li><li>The Bridge World article mentions the occasional cruelty of bridge-players, especially to inexperienced players. While true,  best behaviour rules have improved matters markedly so that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_875_9">gamesmanship</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_875_9"></A> can now be punished. </li></ul></li><li><b>Competitive Bridge</b>:<ul type="disc"><li>This is where things get difficult. As noted above, bridge can be played simply because it is fun. But it can also be played competitively, where it is important  either over individual sessions, or over a period of time  to do better  and be seen to do better  than one s rivals and one s earlier self. </li><li>It is necessary to make a brief diversion into the ranking systems of English bridge:- <ol type="i"><li><b>Master Points</b>: See the EBU account (<a name="W3664W"></a><A HREF = "http://www.ebu.co.uk/masterpoints" TARGET = "_top">Link</A>). The trouble with this scheme is that it is cumulative, so you can rise through the ranks by playing long and often. Those (like me) who had a 30-year intermission in their bridge career  and now only want to play a couple of times a week  are at a considerable <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_875_10">disadvantage</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_875_10"></A>. So, the new system below is to be welcomed! Before mentioning the NGS, though, it s worth mentioning  Gold Points . These are an excellent idea  to earn them, you have to do very well in a national tournament, and they  age off over time, so represent current strength better than the traditional master point scheme. But they are only available for highly successful tournament payers; the vast majority of bridge-players </li><li><b>National Grading System (NGS)</b>: Again, see the EBU Account (<a name="W3870W"></a><A HREF = "https://www.ebu.co.uk/ngs" TARGET = "_top">Link</A>). This is much more a measure of recent success, if not quite of current standard. The basic assumption is that the rating of a partnership is the average of the ratings of the partners, which is not always the case  it ll usually be less with unfamiliar partnerships. </ol></li><li>The trouble with competitiveness and ranking systems is that it can take over as the major motivation for playing the game, or at least interfere with the pleasure of playing. <ol type="i"><li>If your motivations is to improve your rating, you may be dissatisfied after a disappointing session even if you played well  as often happens in bridge  if it has depressed your rating. Similarly if you ve played poorly, but been lucky  you may be elated if your rating has shot up. It s true that this emotional response might be the case even if there were no ranking rewards, but  particularly with respect to the NGS ranking which is more volatile  may be exacerbated. Improving the ranking  rather than just enjoying the game  may become the main motivator for playing. </li><li>While the NGS is supposed to take into account strong players playing with their weaker brethren, it doesn t really. So, it may make some more reluctant to do so. Again, this reluctance was always so, but the NGS may exacerbate matters. Before, playing with a weaker partner would just mean there was less to be gained as far as climbing the greasy MP pole, but now it can result in a catastrophic slither down the NGS ladder. </ol></li><li>Let s take an <b>example</b>  playing in an unaffiliated club, one that is not, or is no longer, affiliated to the EBU. In that case, there are no master points at stake, and one s NGS rating will be unaffected. Is it worth playing? Many keen players do play under such circumstances, and it is a litmus test of why one plays the game. Of course, one might not wish to play at such clubs because they are weak, the standard low, which is both not much of a challenge and bad for one s game. There are, of course, instrumental reasons for playing at such clubs  for instance trying out a new system or a new partner without your NGS rating being ruined. But, thinking there is  no point because there is no lucre in terms of MP/NGS kudos to be gained  as has been my opinion in the past (probably rightly, as bridge sessions have to be tightly rationed) probably indicates that the game is not always played for its own sake. </li><li>Another <b>example</b> is playing in tournaments  or against opponents  that are far too strong for you. You have no realistic chance of winning, or even doing well, and so will garner no MPs, though your NGS may rise even though you come below average. Someone who loves the game  or just wants to improve by encountering the strongest players and trying to learn from them (or at least using them as a yardstick with which to measure their own progress)  may relish such events, whereas someone who just plays for the results will think them a waste of time and money. </li><li>Note that very strong players on the hunt for bundles of MPs to progress their ranking will often turn up to SIMS events at weak clubs they seldom frequent for purely opportunistic reasons. The game cannot be that pleasurable for anyone concerned.</li><li>Another issue is the state in which you turn up for your bridge session. Some players are so desperate for a game that they play with the  flu which they share with everyone else. But, such occasions apart, bridge is in general played by prior arrangement and it is disappointing to be  let down when your partner has to withdraw. Sometimes, however, one may be in normal health but too tired (or maybe too agitated by other concerns) to play to your normal standard. This is also letting your partner (and yourself) down. But it s sometimes not possible to avoid such situations. I occasionally have a nap prior to sessions  but there s an opportunity cost here, and is something not available to those at work (or on the golf course). </li></ul></li><li><b>Conclusion</b>: <ul type="disc"><li>This paper has been written to help me as an individual think through why I play bridge. What I have to say will not apply to all  or indeed many  other bridge players. </li><li>So, for me it is just a game. It must not become a major focus of my efforts, must be relaxing, and must not be played for instrumental reasons of status. </li><li>That said, it s best to do anything you do to the best of your ability within the constraints your other activities apply, and to seek advancement where this is an automatic consequence of performing that activity well. </li><li>As such, I will seek to turn up to bridge sessions in good condition, play against strong players to improve, not play against weaker players merely to gain MPs, and not play in tournaments merely to gain GPs. </li><li>I need to teach myself more about the game by personal study. Historically, I ve wasted a lot of time trying to educate partners via post-mortems. This time can be better spent. </li></ul> </li></ol></P> <FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><HR><h3 class = "Left">In-Page Footnotes:</h3><a name="On-Page_Link_875_1"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_875_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>The sort of thing I have in mind is that  say  spending your life building perfect match-stick models of the great cathedrals  when you had the ability to win a Nobel prize or become a violin virtuoso  would be a life wasted. </li><li>Similarly, neglecting your primary responsibilities is not a moral option  except possibly in the case of extreme genius (<a name="W3357W"></a><A HREF = "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Gauguin" TARGET = "_top">Paul Gauguin</A> s escape to Tahiti is an example, at least as adapted and romanticised in W. Somerset Maugham s <a name="W3358W"></a><A HREF = "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Moon_and_Sixpence" TARGET = "_top">The Moon and Sixpence</A>). </li><li>But I don t want to appear to be arguing that everyone with a mono-mania should instead head off to India to help the poor. We re not all kitted out for this sort of thing, and most bridge-players are past that stage of life. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_875_2"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_875_2"><B>Footnote 2</B></A></U>: See, for instance, this article from 2009 in the NYT  <a name="W3663W"></a><A HREF = "http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/22/health/research/22brain.html?_r=0" TARGET = "_top">Link</A>. <a name="On-Page_Link_875_3"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_875_3"><B>Footnote 3</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>See EBED (<a name="W3661W"></a><A HREF = "http://www.ebedcio.org.uk/info" TARGET = "_top">Link</A>).</li><li>See also this article in Bridge World Magazine: <a name="W3356W"></a><A HREF = "https://www.bridgeworld.com/indexphp.php?page=/pages/learn/beginners/whyplaybridge.html" TARGET = "_top">Why Play Bridge?</A>, which is referenced by the above page (so presumably the EBU has nothing better). </li><li>There s a quotation I can t source  attributed to some savant (maybe Voltaire)  along the lines of  You do not play at whist Monsieur  what a miserable old age you have stored up for yourself! I note that a variant appears in the above article, but is attributed by Rudy Boschwitz (maybe this person  <a name="W3662W"></a><A HREF = "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudy_Boschwitz" TARGET = "_top">Link</A>) to his dad! </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_875_4"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_875_4"><B>Footnote 4</B></A></U>: Or some form of proto-Bridge in late 19th century Russia. <a name="On-Page_Link_875_5"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_875_5"><B>Footnote 5</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I have come across an analogous situation  but without the same negative consequences  in my own experience. </li><li>Someone I knew took ill (and shortly died), but received a lot of support from the bridge community by way of visits. </li><li>However, the compulsive nature of bridge is illustrated by how disappointed a bridge-player tends to be when  let down by a partner, and how some will franticly phone around, or just turn up to play with someone random. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_875_6"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_875_6"><B>Footnote 6</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I ve written on this!</li><li>See my answer to the question  <A HREF="../../MillSoctratesDissatisfied.pdf" TARGET = "_top">Does Mill successfully explain why it is better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied?</a> .</li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_875_7"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_875_7"><B>Footnote 7</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Maybe it depends what you do when not relaxing. </li><li>It might be that if you re usually occupied in intensely physical activity, then a bit of sedentary mental exertion might be relaxing. </li><li>But, expert bridge involves  counting the hand  which is intensely cognitively intensive.</li><li>It may be that if you cultivate a certain habit of mind when young enough, this skill may come without effort, but I doubt it. </li><li>For  counting follow <A HREF="../Notes_11/Notes_1146.htm#Counting" TARGET = "_top">this link</a>. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_875_8"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_875_8"><B>Footnote 8</B></A></U>: Maybe things will change as on-line bridge becomes more popular. <a name="On-Page_Link_875_9"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_875_9"><B>Footnote 9</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>That said, there are a couple of local players  and the occasional national player  that are capable of using the  ethical rules of bridge to their own advantage. </li><li>Weaker players  or unfamiliar partnerships  often pause either in the bidding or the play  rather than bid or play smoothly as they are supposed to do. So do players of international standard, of course  sometimes more so. In such circumstances, the partner of such a player is not allowed to make inferences from the pause  or trance  and assume that their partner has something to think about. </li><li>It is true that some players  unconsciously or otherwise  do make such inferences, and it is because some players cheat in this way that an opponent is able to  reserve his rights and ask for an adjusted score if his opponents have used the pause as  unauthorised information . The way transgression is proved is if a fair sample of top players wouldn t have bid in the way the alleged transgressor had. </li><li>This can lead to great injustice, as  frequently  such ditherings occur where weaker players don t know what they are doing, and it is a way for stronger players to get an adjusted score when a weaker pair has  by good luck  got a better score than their skill deserved. </li><li>Since pauses happen all the time, and most partners treat them ethically, such  rights should only be  reserved in cases of flagrant or repeated breach, and only in serious competitions. In other cases its best to ask the director to  have a quiet word with the transgressors. </li><li>Some card-sharps use this right to their advantage in weak clubs against weaker players in order to intimidate them, or to wriggle out of bad results. It spoils the game in such circumstances, and is to be deprecated. It is effectively accusing your opponents of cheating. </li><li>No doubt the above-mentioned card-sharps would disagree with my interpretation of their activities. They seem to when I point the above inference out. It s correct for all that. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_875_10"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_875_10"><B>Footnote 10</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>An additional irritation is the need to supplement  Green points earned in Regional or National competitions  with  Local Points  earned in clubs. </li><li>There are also  Blue Points that can be earned in lesser tournaments, and which convert to GPs, up to a maximum of 50. </li><li>While I might accumulate the GPs, there s no possibility of accumulating sufficient LPs to climb the rankings without playing a lot more frequently. </li><li>SIMS: Simultaneous pairs  massive national or international competitions with heats in clubs  are useful ways of accumulating large quantities of LPs (and BPs) provided you do well, and they are held on the nights  and at the clubs  on which you play. Serious MP-gatherers will play every night available. I do not. </li></ul></center><br> <br><hr><h3 class = "Left">Printable Versions:</h3> <UL><li>Follow (<A Href="Notes_Print/NotesPrint_875_0_P_R.htm" TARGET = "_top">this link</A>) for level 0 (with reading list), and </li><li>Follow (<A Href="Notes_Print/NotesPrint_875_1_P.htm" TARGET = "_top">this link</A>) for level 1.</li></UL> <a name="TableOfPreviousVersions"></a><BR><HR><h3 class= "Left">Table of the Previous 2 Versions of this Note:</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=700> <TR><TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeCenter"><strong>Date</strong></TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeRight"><strong>Length</strong></TD> <TD WIDTH="70%" class = "BridgeLeft"><strong>Title</strong></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">14/10/2016 22:14:53</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">13695</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_875_42657927.htm">Why Play Bridge?</A></TD></TR> <TR><TD class = "BridgeCenter">05/04/2016 23:19:41</TD> <TD class = "BridgeRight">3549</TD> <TD class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF = "Notes_875_42465972.htm">Why Play Bridge?</A></TD></TR> </TABLE> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950><TR> <TH WIDTH="25%">Note last updated</TH> <TH WIDTH="50%">Reading List for this Topic</TH> <TH WIDTH="25%">Parent Topic</TH></TR> <TR><TD WIDTH="25%">10/04/2017 23:38:24</TD> <TD WIDTH="50%">None available</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%">None</TD></TR> </TABLE></center> <BR><HR><BR><h3>Summary of Note Links to this Page</h3> <CENTER> <TABLE Class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR> <td bgcolor="#b3ffb3" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_846.htm#1"><span title="High Quality">Status: Bridge (Summary of Progress to Date)</span></A></TD> <td bgcolor="#b3ffb3" WIDTH="20%"><A href = "../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1146.htm#2"><span title="High Quality">Theo Todman's Bridge Page</span></A></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P class = "Centered">To access information, click on one of the links in the table above.</P> <br><hr><br><CENTER> <h3>Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=950> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Author</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Title</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B><B>Medium</B></B></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Extra Links</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"><B><B>Read?</B></B></TD> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Todman (Theo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">Why Play Bridge?</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21757.htm#1">Paper</A> <img src="../../accept.png"alt="High Quality Abstract" Title="High Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">Tolstoy (Leo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="45%" class = "BridgeLeft">The Death of Ivan Ilyich</TD> <TD WIDTH="10%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12622.htm#1">Paper</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title="Medium Quality"></TD> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">&nbsp;</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> </TABLE></center> <CENTER> <br><hr><br><h3>References & Reading List</h3> <TABLE class = "ReadingList" WIDTH=950> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Author</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Title</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Medium</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft"><B>Source</B></TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"><B>Read?</B></TD> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Tolstoy (Leo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">The Death of Ivan Ilyich</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12622.htm">Paper - Cited</A> <img src="../../asterisk_yellow.png"alt="Medium Quality Abstract" Title="Write-Up Complete"></TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Tolstoy (Leo) - The Death of Ivan Ilyich and Other Stories</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter">Yes</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD WIDTH="15%" class = "BridgeLeft">Tolstoy (Leo)</TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" class = "BridgeLeft">The Death of Ivan Ilyich and Other Stories</TD> <TD WIDTH="20%" class = "BridgeLeft"><A HREF="../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2743.htm">Book - Cited (via Paper Cited)</A> </TD> <TD WIDTH="35%" class = "BridgeLeft">Bibliographical details to be supplied</TD> <TD WIDTH="5%" class = "BridgeCenter"> 30%</TD> </TR> </TABLE> </CENTER> <a name="ColourConventions"></a><br><hr><br><h3 class = "Left">Text Colour Conventions</h3><OL TYPE="1"><li><FONT COLOR = "000000">Black</FONT>: Printable Text by me; 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